Water coverage remains a major development gap in most parts of the developing world including Kenya. Estimates show that about 60% of Kenyans have inadequ ate access to clean water although the nation has adequate rainfall, reliable sources of water and numerous water projects. Despite the numerous water projects and interve ntions aimed at improv i ng access to safe and clean water supply, most of the projects have not been succe ssfu l in meeting the water needs of most population that needs water most. The Purpose of this study is to evaluate influence of resu lt-based mana geme nt (RBM) on performance of Machakos County governments ‘ water projects. Moreover, the study attempts to establish how organizat iona l resources moderate the association between res ult -based management and performance of County Government water projects. The objectives of the study will be to assess how stakeholder participation influences performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County; examine the degree to which risks management influences the performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County; determine how selec tion of key performance indicators affec ts the performance of county governments’   water projects in Machakos County; determine   the degree to which continuous le arnin g and improvement impact s the performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County; establish how combined Result Based Management influence county governments’ water projects performance in Machakos County; evaluate the degree to which organizational resources influence the county governments’ water projects performance in Machakos County; and establish how organizational resources moderates the association between results-based management and the performance of county gove rnments’ water projects. Find ings of the study will be of great importance to the County governme nts, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation, water management agencies, reside nts of Machakos County, policy makers, scholars, researchers and also academicians. The study will adopt descriptive cross- sectiona l surve y research as well as correlational research design. Target population will be 361 responde nts comprising of the water projects beneficiaries in Machakos County, employees in ministry of water in Machakos County, staff in Tana -Ath i Water Service board and the project managers. Stratified random sampli ng will be deployed to choose the 190 respondents from stud y population. The stud y will use semi-struc tured questionnaires as well as key informant interview guide to collect primary data. Questionnaires will be distributed by employing DOPU method and face to face interv ie ws will be conducted for key informant interv ie ws. Themat ic analysis will be employed to analyze qualitative data and then the results will be given in narrative form. Additionally, inferen tial and descriptive statistic s will be deployed to analyze quantitative data with assistance of SPSS version 22. Result s of quantitative research will be presented using tab le s.


1.1 Background of the Study

Safe, clean, and also easily available water is a crucial constituent of plant and animal life. According to Marks, Komives and Davis (2014), clean and safe drinking water refers to water obtained from improved water sources, including hou se hold connections,  boreholes,  public standp ipes, safeg uarded    dug wells, safeguarded   spr ings as well as rainwater collections. Clean and safe water is drawn from diverse source s for example ground water, lake s, river s as  well  as swamps, these so urces of water represent 2.5% of  I .4 billion cubic kilometers of surface  water cover the earth. Without  treatment, just about  I  percent of  this  pure water  is  safe to consume. Desal inat io n can be used  to make safe drinking  water from salty water (Bogus, Migliaccio & Jin, 20 I 3). Although there  is  enough  fresh  water  on  the  planet  today  to  meet  the  needs of  every ind ividual on the earth, millions of people are affected by inadequ ate water su pply as well as poor san itat io n and hygiene. According  to WHO (2014 ), millions of people majority being children under 5 years die every year from diseases related  to water quality. Globally and  mostly in third world countries, inadequate water suppl y, Poor  water quality, as well  as  inadequate sanitat io n, have an inver se influence  on  poor fami lies  ‘  livelihood  options, educational  chances, and  food sec urity around the world (IFAD, 2014).

The re has been a concerted international effort in developing nations over the last three decades to enhance access to safe and clean drinking water for hou se holds use . Global efforts have been spear headed throu gh different initiatives and programmes. Over the past 20 years the international community has organized five world water forums to come up with so lu tio ns for iss ue s of access to quality of drinking water for worlds’ poorest populations. The international forums and meetings have included the Morocco hosted the WWF in 1997, Hague hosted second WWF in 2000, Kyoto hosted the third WWF in 2003, Mexico City hosted the fourth World Water Forum in 2006, and Is tanbu l hosted the fifth World Water Forum in March 2006 (U  Habitat, 2015 ) . T he world water forums highlighted water shortage issue s mostly in developing countries and hence highli ghted the need for raining awareness among decision make rs, and improving water and also sanitat ion access.

In addition, the theme of access to quality water has been included in the United Nations long­ term development plans like just concluded MDGs (MDGs, 2000) and the current Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, 2015). Goal 7c of the USMDGs (2016) was to reduce by half the ration of population without access to basic sanitation as well as safe drinking water and by 2015. Moreover, global population proportion using upgraded drinking water source grew from 76 % to 9 I % between I 990 and 20 I 5. Water shortages, on the other hand, affects over 40% of wor ld’s population and is expected to increa se. With continuing burden to access ing clean drinking water, the United Nations included water as well as sanitat ion component in the UNSDGs (United Nations, 2016).

At the global le vel , T he UNSDGs’ sixth target is to gua rantee univer sal access and sustainab le mana gement of sanitat ion and water to all. The first target in sixth goal is everybody to get un iversal and also equitable access to safe as well as inexpensive drinking water. In addition, the fourth target is to substantiall y increa se the efficiency of water consumption in all sectors and provide a reliable supply of fresh water. This is intended to resolve water shortages and significan tl y reduce the number of people who are affected by it. The eighth UN 2015 SDG target is to strengthen and support local communiti es ‘ participation in enhancing water management (United Nations, 2016).

In Kenya, years of periodic droughts, mismanagement of water resources and supplies, pollution of readily available water, and a significant demand growth for clean and safe water have all contributed to water shortage resulting from population growth. Vision 2030 aims to improve accessibility of clean water and also sanitation in rural and urban regions beyond current levels. Diverse water projects have been developed around the globe by international organizations, NGOs and governments in attempt to increase accessibility to clean as well as safe water (IFAD, 2014).

In the past few years, investment towards access to quality drinking water has increased significantly. On average, World Bank spends over $3 billion per year in aid for water sector and extra $1.5 billion in non-concess ionary lending to support of the water sector. Other sources of financing for access to quality water have seen significant increase in national government budgets to finance access to safe drinking water. Despite the fact that various successful projects to provide clean and safe drinking water have been developed, efforts still fall short of the essential benchmarks for sustainable development.

Water distribution systems in developing nations like Kenya are plagued by leaks, illicit hookups, and vandalism, while Water resources are squandered as a result of corruption as well as mismanagement by government water management agencies, systems and officials. These challenges have given rise to water management reforms in most countries to improve water management. Consequently, new water projects have been set up with structures for efficiency and effectiveness management to ensure projects achieve money value for the project sponsors and results to beneficiary of said water projects.

The water projects are still however characterized by poor performance in terms of achieving the set objectives. In most cases the projects end up not providing quality drinking water to the community projects that are not completed within budget, and time schedule. As such projects end up not being sustainable in line with the sustainable development goals. According to African Development Fund (201 2), water projects in Nigeria suffer from major cost overrun, time overrun and are not sustainable. In Ghana, Komives et al. (2008) discovered that despite various external donors providing much of the financing for capital investments in rural water supply projects, most projects in the rural areas remain incomplete while others were  not  functional  even  after completion. In Tanzania, 42.9 % as well as 20.1 % of people in rural and also urban areas, respectively, lack access to enhanced waters sources despite having water projects in their communities  financed  by government  and NGOs. The poor access  to water can be attributed  to poor performance of  water projects in  terms of achievement of  the set objectives and sustainability of water projects, (Republic of Tanzania, 2012 ). The evaluation of Chilinze Water Supply  in Tanzania indicated that the project did not meet its objectives because of poor implementation, the project lacked a monitoring system for operation and management plans and lacked community participation in main decision-making processes (Shane, Bogus & Molenaar, 20 I 3 ).

In a study investigating performance of various Water Projects in Kenya, despite the importance of water projects to the country social and economic development, Kariuki (2015) discovered that the amount of resources invested, the performance of projects has been poor as most projects experience time and cost over-run. Most of these water projects have not been utilized by the communities due to unsuccessful completion. Furthermore, according to Githua and Wanyoike (2015), many community water initiatives are begun but fail to achieve their goals and are not sustainable because of mismanagement and inadequate community ownership. Other water projects operate for one or two years after construction before collapsing, resulting in failure to achieve the planned goals. The inability of most   water projects   to achieve the intended   objectives   and   be sustainable has delayed the global ambition of SDGs to ensure sustainable and availability management of sanitation and water for all. The failed water projects have also resulted into sunk resources by NGOs, international development agencies, governments and communities.

1.1.1         Performance of County Government Water Projects

Since the I 970s, numerous studies have been conducted on project performance worldwide (Marks, Komives & Davis, 2014). However, the right definition and stand ard measures on performance of water projects have not been agreed upon by numerous authors. According to Olukotun (2008), the meaning, methods and too ls for measuring performance of water project differ among different governments, implementers, contractors as well as donors. Nonetheless, there is a widespread consensus among project management scholars and professionals that performance of water project entails aspects of effectiveness, efficiency and sustainability. Marcela (2014) defines water project performance as ensuring that service s on water supply and also interventions continue to function satisfactorily as well as deliver expected benefits.

Practitioners and scholars agree that performance of water project can be assessed in terms of time li ness, safe ty, cost, user satisfaction and quality. Kanyanya (2014), on the other hand, claims that a water project ‘s performance is good if it meets defined technical specifications and satisfies key stake holders including parent organization managers, donors, consumers and project team members. Tifow (2014) suggests that water projects ‘ performance is regarded good if it is completed on time, on budget, meets the objectives, and provides customer satisfaction long after completion of the project.

Traditionally, performance of a project was measured using meeting deadlines, staying within budget (cost), and delivering the expected quality. However, even if projects are completed on time, on budget, and of high quality, they can still be considered successful to have failed if projects do not satisfy the users and is not sustainable. The traditional measures of performance such as cost, quality as well as budget are crucial in measuring performance, but other dimensions of measures need to be included to comprehensively determine performance of water project. These other measures would include aspects like: stakeholders’ satisfaction, sustainability, social and environmental impact. According to Marcela (2014), project performance should be measured in terms of completion time, budget compliance, efficiency, effectiveness, achieving stakeholder expectations, minimizing conflicts as well as disputes, and lastly project safety (Marks, Komives & Davis, 2014). According to the OECD DAC of the US, the main dimensions of evaluating the project performance include: Relevance of the water project, coherence with broader development ambition, effectiveness of achieving set goals, Efficiency in the utilization of resources, impact of water project in making the lives of beneficiaries and how sustainable are the benefits of the project to the beneficiaries (OECD DAC, 1991).

1.1.2         Result Based Management

Globally, governments have in the recent past years initiated several reforms meant to provide efficient and effective public service that provide citizen centered, result oriented public service that put more emphasis on business and strategic planning (Caviggioli et al., 2017 ). The world has seen a global paradigm change in public sector adopting management tools, concepts and techniques that previously were applied in the private sector. This shift has drastically changed the relationship between governments and their citizens. The reforms that started around 1980s are referred to as New Public Management and have led to significant changes in provision of services in public sector (Ogolla and Moronge, 2015 ).

In many OECD (Organisations for Economic Co-operat ion and Development) countries, a new type of public management has helped change the public sector leading to growth and us of management methods borrowed from the private sector. Such tools which focus on results and outcomes are commonly known Resu lt-based Management (RBM) (Kariuk.i, 2015). RBM has resulted in the change of the public sector accountability and management of programme results (African Development Fund, 2012). This is an addition to the traditional accountability for outputs, resources and activities of programme.

RBM is a wide way of management seeking to bring changes in government operations, and better the performance in order to achieve better results as the central orientation (Caviggioli et al., 2017). Result based management uses a life cycle approach, results levels and feedback loops to achieve strategic goals. It starts with strategic design, planning, implementation and includes monitoring as part of implementation. Monitoring is essential in ensuring that data is being collected to determine whether the quality results are being achieved. Result s-based management uses resources, people, measurements and strategy for the improvement of the transparency, accountability, continuous improvement and decision making. This kind of approach focus on the achievement of results, implementation of performance measurement, adapting, learning and the reporting of performance (Try and Radnor, 2007). Resu lt-based management is anchored on key principles including: simplicity, partnership, accountability, transparency and flexibility. The main components of result -based management include situation analysis, stakeholder participation, expected results, managing risks, choosing performance indicators, gathering performance information, performance reporting and continuous learning and improvement. However, this study will focus on four components: stakeholder participation, risks management, key performance indicators and continuous learning and improvement.  Stakeholders Participation

Project stakeholders refers to individuals or group of individuals affected by the project, affect the project or seem as if they will be affected by the results, activities and decisions of the project (Komives et al., 2008). The stakeholders in a project are the team members, any other internal and externally party that might have an interest to the project. The stakeholders have different levels of authority, participation and responsibilities in the project. These levels keep on changing during the project life cycle depending on the needs of stakeholders. The levels of involvement might be characterized from low key contribution during needs assessment, participation in design, planning and engagement in particular activities, to a full involvement and support which can include giving political and financial support to the project (Maimuna and Kidombo, 2017 ). It is the project manager responsibility to pay attention to diverse and changing needs of stakeholder, the Project manager should strive to respond to the needs stakeholders and ensure these needs do not affect the delivery of the project. The project manager must always work to promote  effective stakehold ers’ engagement and participation in the project.

According to Shane, Bogus and Molenaar (20 I 3), stakeholder participation comprises of nine components: information disclosure, consultation with indigenous peoples, stakeholder identification, grievance management, reporting to stakeholders, stakeho ld er’ s analysis, stakeholder consultation as well as involvement of stakeholder in project monitoring. However, according to Maurici (2010), the four key components of stakeho ld ers’ participation include stakeholder consultation, stakeholder analysis and identification, information disclosure as well as stakeholder management.

The key first steps that need to be taken by the project manager to ensure successful stakeholder engagement is the identification of the internal and external group or individual persons who are going to be affected or are likely to be directly and indirectly affected by a project including those who might have interest on  the project (Maimuna  and  Kidombo, 2017 ). As the project continues, the project manager should  give the proper information  to the identified stakeholders on  the nature of the projects, how it affects the environment and other aspects. The project manager ought also to provide crucial information on interest taken by the public on the project. Such an engagement will help improve the already open communication channels between the project and key stakeholders. Shane, Bogus and Molenaar (2013) confirms that the clients should make use of the right engagement means to give information and feedback on how effective are the mitigation practices on the lives of the stakeholders affected by the project, any concerns and interests on the project.

Suggestion for modifications and changes to the project  should be  done  in  line  with  the stakeholde r’ s identification, analysis and project description. The modifications to  the  project should consider the magnitude and effect of the change on the project, the society and employees (Shane, Bogus & Molenaar, 20 I 3). Stakeholder relations management is an important characteristic enabling  the successful deli very of activity, project or program. The management of the stakeholde r’ s interests  leads to the right relationship  with  the stakeholders as their objectives and expectations are considered when making key project decisions. The process of stakeholder management should  be well  planned  and guided  by  laid down principles  (Ogolla  and  Moronge, 20 I 5). Effective stakeholder management should include robust strategies for meaningful consultation, participation and mutual feedback with key stake ho lders . This effective stake ho lde r management is impo rtant in improving performance  of  projects especially  county  governme nt wate r projects to ensure satis factio n of key s take holde rs of the county water projects especially coun ty governme nts and the communities that are the key beneficiaries of county water projects. Stakehol der’ s participation in selection, de sign, implementation and maintenance of county water projects ensures that the coun ty water projects are relevant to the community wa ter needs and  are sus tainab le. Without proper stakeho lder’ s participation in the county water projects, the projects would lack owners hip and the projects might not ide nt ify and address the diverse le vels of water consumption of different stake ho lders within the county.  Risk Management

Risk is any internal or external factors that could possibly impac t a project ‘ s performance , timeline or bud get (Dandage, Rane & Mantha, 2021). In Project management, risks are potentialities in context whic h are c lassified as ” issues ” whe n the y become reality and that must be addressed. Project RM is defined as a process of recognizing, analyzing, and reacting to internal or external risk that emerge during project’s li fe cycle so as to stay on pace with the project and meet i ts goals . As a result, risk management is an act of recognizing, assess ing, and planning for risks before they tum into proble ms.

On diverse projects, Risk Management (RM) might imply distinct things. RM approac hes for large-scale projects may need considerable analysis and planning to make certain that mitigation measures are in place in case each risk develops into a problem for the project. Typ ic all y, project managers are responsible for overseeing the RM plans and actio ns  in  the course of  a project (Amoah & Pretorius, 2020). County wa ter Project managers must have a strong grasp of the project objectives and risk associated with each activity in order to detect any elements that may affect implementation and the capacity of the team to deliver project activities and to achieve county water project results.

The process of identifying and analyzing potential issues that could have a negative impact on significan t business efforts or projects is known as risk analysis. Project Risk analysis includes dete rmining how the project’s outcomes and objectives might change as a result of the risk evenL Once the risks have been identified, they are examined to determine the risk ‘s qualitative and quantitative impact on the project so that suitable mitigation measures can be performed. This procedure is carried out in order to assist companies in avoiding or reducing risk (20 I 8, Kutsch). It also aids in tlhe definition of preventative actions to lower the likelihood of the se factors occurring and the identification of countermeasures to succe ss fu lly deal with these restrictions when they arise in order to avoid undesirable consequences.

The ultimate purpose of risk analysis is to prepare for risk mitigation. The risk mitigation process entails the creation of plans to manage, remove, or decrease risk to a manageable level (Dandage, Rane & Mantha, 2021). Regular checking or surve illance sho uld be a deliberate aspect of the risk management process, as shou ld monitoring and review (Amoah &  Pretorius,  2020).  Risk monitoring and review entails recognizing changes in the external and internal context, as well as changes in risk criteria, which may necessitate adjustments to risk treatment strategies and priorities. The risk management analysis and plans for county water projects sho uld  be in place before actual implementation to ensure that county water project plan for and mitigate any potential risk that might jeopardize achievement of the objectives of county water projects.  Key Performance Indicators

The “critical links” or causal relationships in a project’s results chain are measured by key performance indicators. Performance monitoring monitors the evolution of a project’s KPis across time (Lavy, Garcia & K. Dix it, 20 I 4). Monitoring key perfo rmance indicators ensures that data is collected and analyzed to measure progress at various result le vels in the results chain. Since result chain projects can track so many variables, it’s critical to concentrate on causal relationships in the result chain that at the input, process output, outcome, and impact le ve ls, are regarded the most crucial to project succe ss (Car lucci , 2017 ).

Selecting Key Performance Indic ators (KPls) require time as well as thou ght. Some crucial lin ks in the result chain are stra ightfo rward as well as easy to measure and it ‘s possible that just one indicator will suffice to convey the unde rl ying outcome (Poveda, 2017 ). Other crucial li nk s, on the other hand, may have many ind ic ators monitoring different dimensions, or perhaps just one, of the unde rl ying result or different results le vels. By includin g impo rtant stake holde rs in the identific atio n and selec tio n of key performance indicators, yo u can ensure that the ind ic ators you choose are le gitimate and reliable. During the selection of an indicator, an indicator shou ld be direct, objectively usef ul for management and attributable (Lavy, Garcia & Dix it, 2014 ). Indicators must be mea surable , s pecific , realistic, relevant, and also time -bound mean ing which makes them objective and stra ightforward to be achieved during the period of the project to be time-bound.

The key performance ind ic ators templates shou ld describe and ide nti fy method of data collection that will be used to obtain information. Surveys, questionnaires, interviews, sensor data gathe ring , focus grou ps, automated machine data collecting, and archive data gathe ring are all examples of data gather ing method s. It shou ld also specify the source of data, data collection frequency and methods of analyzing data (Carlucci, 20 I 7). In project management, KPis are a variety of particular measurement methods that show how successfully teams are reaching specific objectives (Poveda, 2017). The results after analysis are put in a report together with recommendations for improvement. A KPI report is a visual representation of data allows leaders to quickly see how the projects are performing against key performance indicators. During implementation of county water projects, the project managers need to develop a monitoring framework with clear key performance indicators. This framework helps design methods and tools for data collection, analysis and presentation of the progress of county water projects. The KPis provide management with data on implementation progress county water projects and decision making. Without clear KPis, county water projects risk being implemented without evidence on progress and data for management decision making. The lack of progress data might lead county water projects to overrun implementation scope, cost, time and thereby not meeting the expectation of the key stakeholders especially the beneficiaries of the county water project.  Continuous Learning and improvement

The systematic endeavor to seek out and use innovative ways of performing work is known as continuous improvement. These systematic efforts result into actively and also repeatedly making process enhancement. The modern consistent learning and improvement borrow heavily from a Japanese philosophy called Kaizen” which means change for the better” or “continuous improvement. It is a Japanese business philosophy for continuously improve of operation systems and process with the involvement of all employees (Berger, I 997).

It’s a method of learning that involves a gradual accumulation of experiments that leads to a steady stream of incremental innovations (Josephine & Kimencu, 2020). The development of specific systems within an organization to find and solve problems in a systematic manner and share experiences across intra -organ izat io na l boundaries to improve sys tems, process and products is referred to as continuous improvement. Continuous improvement focusses   on   elimination   of unnece ssary    variability, reduction of actions   that do not add value the reby reducing cost and deli very time and resulting into higher operational performance (Back.J und & Sundqvist, 20 I 8 ).

Project Performance reviews is one of key monitoring as well  as evaluation techniques used  to ga uge and also analyze the progress and performance of work between baseline and targets of a project. Project performance review he lps in determining whether the organizatio n really needs to undertake the project (Winiko , Mbugua & Kyalo, 2018). Performance review includes measuring actual completion and execution dates of the project and also the time remaining for work in progress. The data collected and analyzed during performance review are central to info rm management decisions for continuous learning and impro veme nt of the project implementation process.

The use of monitoring and evaluation data and results for management decisions results in better service delivery efficiency, higher project financial benefits, and the implementation of critical mitigating measures to manage project scope, time and resources. Continuous le arning and improvement is based  on  how  the  performance  review  data evaluated  and  utilized  to  inform decis io n-making   and   resource   alloca tio n   (Kiumbe, Wambugu   & Luketero,   20 I 8).    Sustained ut ili zatio n of performance review data has the potential to lead an organization toward s meeting its goals and mitigate aga inst vulnerability and fai l ure to meet the set project goals and objectives. The outcomes of project performance reviews are used to improve projects, advocate for more funding, and propose policies to better  project  implementation  (Kithinji,  Gakuu  &  Kidombo, 2017). Utili zation of monitoring and evaluation data for decision making and resource allocation keeps the organization in a ” cont inuous learning mode ” as stakeholders in a project gain updated understanding of the context under which the project us implemented and the implementation progress.

Communication and dissemination of results of monitoring and evaluation processes involves sharing findings with internal as well as external stakeholders to inform them of the progress ad impact of the project. M&E results should be disseminated and used on an ongoing basis to inform learning and continuous improvement, right from the beginning (Okul & Nyonje, 2020). It is worth noting that, different county water project stakeholders have different information needs and therefore, the methods for disseminating M&E results depend on utilization needs of different project stakeholders. Dissemination of project information  and  results  is normally  more successful if major stakeholders participate in designing the most appropriate methods for dissemination based on their information needs and are involved in the development of dissemination plan.

Without learning during implementation of county water projects and continuous improving quality based on lessons, county water projects risk not being able to mitigate project risk and changing based on  lessons and fluid implementation context. Additionally, if county water projects do not disseminate information to various stakelholders through the right channels, stakeholders risk missing out on information needed to effectively take part in decision making as well as implementation of county water projects.

1.1.3         Organizational Resources

Organizational capability refers to assets or inputs (tangible or intangible) acquired, controlled or accessed on a short-term basis. These are the primary source of identifying organizational performance (Husmann, Kleinaltenkamp & Hanmer -Lloyd, 2020). Tangible resources are physical resources or an asset that depicts organization’ s financial  records . The key role of determining organizations’ capacity, measured in terms of assets, is to ensure that the firms are at a better position to achieve anticipated competitive advantages. Knowing the specifics of an organization’s tangible resources can help you figure out how to get more value out of them (Weisse nbe rger-Eibl & Teufel, 201 I ) . It entails exploring all economic opportunities within the firm business environment that enable a firm to improve on its assets or profitability with minimal utilization of organization resources. Specialized equipment, geographic   locations, capital,   machineries, land, and buildings are examples of tangible resources.

Despite the fact that intangible resources are more valuable compared to tangible resources, the intangible resources are often invisible or excluded in the financial statements (Durrani, Shah & Khuram, 2021). Further, unde r-eva lu atio n or exclusion of intangible resources is a key cause for large disparities between firms ‘ balance sheet valuation and s tock -marke t valuation (Ongeti, 2014 ). The difficulty in assessing them is one of  the main  reasons for their elimination. Brand names, intellectual property, technology, information, skills, and a sole mandate are examples of intangible assets. They are assets that may be leveraged to develop value -creatin g strategies and ensure efficient delivery of services  in  a  particular  organization  (Weissenberge r-Eibl & Teufel, 201 I ).

Another form of  resource  is human  resources. Emp lo yees ‘ expertise, abilities, and effort are all part of it (Musyok.i & Gakuu, 20 I 8). They don ‘t usually appear in financial accounts because firms don’t “own ” employees, but rather pay for the services they provide. Employees  are  normally  able to leave the company whenever  they  want (Durrani, Shah  & Khuram,  2021). Expertise and skills are referred to as human resources. Furthermore, the availability of qualified staff and management could provide the project with a competitive advantage. The same resources, when used in different ways and in combination with other resources, produce diverse results (Weissen berger-Eibl & Teufel, 201 I ). Few resources  are productive on their own. In exclusion of resources,  the services that resources supply are always inputs in the productive processes.

Project financing can originate from a variety of places, but it has significant implications for the project’s overall cost, ultimate liability, cash flow, and claims to project assets and incomes (Josephine & Kimencu, 2020). The  project  manager  must properly predict costs, track  spending over time, and appropriately respond to circumstances where financial resources are either unde r­ spent or over-spent or when there are chances for project budget reductions in order to deliver project product successfully.

Physical assets that provide economies of scale to project implementation can be a source of value. However, such resources can only be a source of value if they are adequate. Physical assets comprise of equipment, buildings among other resources that are used in project implementation. Nonetheless, having of physical assets does not mean that the performance of a project will improve (Otulia, Mbeche, Wainaina & Njihia, 2017 ). However,  if  there  are  skilled  human resources who can effectively use and service these assets then there is the possibility that project performance will improve.

Effective implementation of county water projects needs efficient and prudent management of physical, financial and human resources to ensure that project results and the needs of different stakeholders are met. Prudent and efficient management of county government water project resources ensures high performance and accountability to both internal and external stakeholders including communities and donors.

1.1.4         Machakos County Water Projects

Machakos County is the former Kenyan capital city which is currently an administrative county in the republic of Kenya. It is one of the 47 counties it has eight constituencies. To the West the Machakos borders Kiambu and Nairobi Counties, to the North it borders Embu County, towards the East it boarders Kitui County, towards South it boarders Makueni County, towards South West it borders Kajiado County, and towards North West it borders Kirinyaga and Murang’ a Counties towards West. The county has a Population of about I .4M people according to 2019 national census. Moreover, the county is predominantly inhabited by the Kamba community but due to urbanization and expansion of Nairobi metropolitan, more Kenyan communities have settled in Machakos. Machakos County has a semi-arid climate and hilly terrain. The residents live in both urban and rural settings with most rural dwellers engaging in subsistence farming such as maize, beans, sorghum and millet farming (Machakos County Government, 2017).

The topography of Machakos County is semi-arid area, which makes the county prone to prolonged water shortages every year. The main townships namely: Matuu, Mavoko, Tata, Masinga and Machakos towns are the areas most affected by water shortages with the residents in the Town center having to spend up to KES 30 per 20-li ter container (Machakos County Government, 2017). Within Machakos town, Katoloni suburb residents especially women have to wake up at dawn and spend hours in queues waiting to purchase water supplied from Maruba dam which has been the main water source for Machakos town. However, the county government has come up with other strategies in order to cub the water shortages. Construction of boreholes, dams and offering piped water are some of the strategies.

In 2014, the country government rehabilitated the Yatta canal to help improve water supply to the residents in Yatta sub-Coun ty. T he canal serves over 74,000 residents with close to 35,000 livestock in the constituency. The rehabilitation of the Yatta canal greatlt improved water suppl y in the sub-coun ty specificall y but broadly in constituency (Machakos County Government, 20 I 7). Economic activities have improved as a result of the rehabilitation including establishment of a flower city farm which uses water from the canal for irrigation. The flowers from the farm have created employment opportunitie s to scale up production for flower export. Farming of local crops has also improved as residents use the wa ter to irrigate their crop, whic h has subseque nt l y reduced the food insecurity. The governme nt is in the process of constructing second largest borehole in Kenya at Ngalalya in Matungulu Sub- County. The project wh ic h is funded by Tana River water services will cost 1 20 million shillin gs and will be target to provide water to about 20,000 households up on completion (Langat, 2014).

The national and county governme nts are investing significantl y to multiply the number of water points in the county which stands at abo ut 746 operationa l borehole s. With increase in the borehole project, the county targets to have adequate water supp l y to supp ort increased food production th rough irrigation and reduce perennial food insecurity in the county. This will to an extent help increase the economic growth of the country due to reduced dependency levels (Mul wa, 2015).

1.2   Statement of the problem

In Kenya, central governmen t, local governmen ts, and also local and foreign NGOs, have launched various water projects in the past decade in an attempt to increase access to safe and clean water (Shane, Bogus & Molenaar, 20 I 3). Despite the many organizations and increase in number of projects aimed at improving access to safe and clean water suppl y, the water projects do not reach most of the population and therefore water coverage remains a major gap  in  most parts of the country. Estimates show that about 60% of Kenyans lack access to clean water although  the nation has adequate rainfall and reliable sources of water.

Kenyan water projects  have faced  a  number of  constraints  in  terms  of  project  performance  and lo ng-term viability (Maimuna & Kidombo, 2017). For example, in Machakos, 67  % of  water projects encounter cost and time overruns, stagnation, and, once built, their  activities  stop functioning immediately after the financiers leave (Lillian & Mut iso, 2019 ). Other water projects operate for a few years after completion before collapsing, failing to achieve their goals. In most sections of the country, non -ope rationa l water projects and halted water projects are typical occurrences.

In the past five years, the County and national government of Machakos County have heavily invested on water projects to improve access to water. Despite the massive investment in water projects, majority of these projects have faced challenges linked with time as well as cost overrun. For example, one of the Kenya ‘ s second largest borehole (Ngalalya borehole) which stalled in the year 20 I O and later revived in the June 20 I 7 was estimated to cost Ksh. I 20 million during design and planning. The project now needs close to Ksh. 107 million more to be completed after an investment of Ksh. 1 20 million (Mulwa, 2017). The cost overrun and time overrun were attributed to lack of community involvement, poor risk management and lack of utilization of M&E results.

Water projects have been experiencing low stakeho lders ‘ participation in various parts of the country. Aupe and Sagwa (2020) indicate that water projects in Kenya, including Machakos County, have about 43% community participation. In  addition,  most of  the Kenya  water  projects are characterized by risks such as mismanagement of resources, schedule risks, raw material cost risks, and operatfona l risks. However, the many risks involved in the implementation of wa ter projects, g’ ang ‘ a and Were (2021) argue s that most of the water projects have poor risk management practices. In add ition, while motoring and evaluation is aimed at ensuring continuous learning and improvement during project implementation, most water projects in Kenya conduct M&E but never ut ili ze the results (Gak uu , 2018 ).

In 2017 , the county governmen t of Machakos was accused of s tarting too many wa ter projects, whic h were le ft incomplete ending up was ting investment by tax payers. In order to get value for money and make water projects to be effective, project fail ure rates should be addressed. Kariuki (2015) suggests that resu lts-based management and stakeho l de rs ‘ participation in water projects can pl ay a major role in performance wa ter pro jects to ensure sustainab le achievement of set targets, goals and also objectives. Try and Radnor (2007) indicates that better integration of the water consumers and those who suppl y the wa ter in decision making whe n the construction, planning as well as management of water suppl y projects can greatl y improve the performance of water projects.

Studies on wa ter-related projects m Kenya have been limited to fac tors impacting project performance. For example, Maimuna and Kidombo (2017 ) studied the fac tors that influence the succe ss of select ed water projects constructed in dry and also semi-arid regions, with particular emphasis on the Ewaso Ng’iro borehole projects within Isiolo County. There fore, the researcher will evaluate infl ue nce of results-based management and partici pation of stake holder on performance of county gove rnments’ water projects within Machakos County.

Purpose of this study is to examine effect of result -based management (RMB) on Machakos County gove rnments’ water projects ‘ performance. Moreover, the study attempts to establish how organizational resources moderate the association between resu l t-based management (RBM) and performance of County Government water projects

 The research is anchored on the following objec6ves:

  1. To assess how stakeho lde r participation influe nce s performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County, Kenya
  2. To examine the extent to which risks management influences the performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County, Kenya
  3. To determine how selec tion of key performance indicators, influences the performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County, Kenya
  4. To assess the degree to which continuous learning and improvement affects the performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County, Kenya
  5. To examine the extent to which organizational resources influence the performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County, Kenya
  6. To establish how organizational resources moderates the association between resu lts-based management and performance of county governments’ water

 The study will answer the below research questions;

  1. How does stakeholder participation influence performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County, Kenya?
  2. How does risk management influence performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County, Kenya?
  3. How does selection of Key performance indicators influence performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County, Kenya?
  1. To what degree does continuous learning and improvement influence performance of county gove rnments’ water projects situated in Machakos County, Kenya?
  2. To what extent do organizational resources influence performance of county gove rnments’ water projects within Machakos County, Kenya?
  3. How do organizational resources moderate the correlation between RBM and the performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County, Kenya?
1.6 Research Hypotheses

 The study seeks to test the following research hypotheses:

  1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between stakeholder participation and performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County,
  2. Ho: There is no significant relationship between risk management and performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County,
  3. Ho: There is no significant association between selection of KPis and performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County,
  4. Ho: There is no significant relationship between continuous learning and improvement and performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County,


  1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between organizational resources and  performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County,
  2. Ho: Organizational resources have no significant moderating effect on relationship between RBM and performance of county water projects in Machakos County, Kenya.

1.7 Significance of the study

Kenya is a water -inadequate country with over 37 % of  the population  relying on  water sources that are not improved (Mulwa, 20 I 7). As outlined in the country development blueprint, the vision 2030 and  in  line with UN SDGs number six, Kenya  has planned  to enhance access to both safe water as well as sanitation  in urban and  rural areas. The investments  made by government and private sector to achieve water and sanitation goal necessitates have seen significant increase in number of  water  projects across  the country. This study aims  to provide  reliable  information  to key stakeholders, scholars, the government agencies, policy decision makers on the influence of results-based management and stake ho lders ‘ participation  on  performance  water  projects. This data for academic dialogues among management scholars, practitioners,  donors  may  provide valuable information to be used in policy formulation to improve water projects ‘ performance in Kenya.

The research is expected to provide information on RBM and performance of water projects to County governments, Ministry of Water and Irrigation, water management agencies and also non ­ governments institutions which are involved in water projects in Kenya. Information can be utilized to establish evide nce -based plans to help the coun try’s water projects function better.

The study may help academicians and researchers with addition to the body of knowledge and fill information gaps existing in other literature on the effect of RBM on water projects ‘ performance.

Additionally, the findings may add further information  to existing knowledge on  moderating effect of stakeholders ‘ participation on association between RBM and water projects’ performance.

1.8 Limitations of the Study

Limitations are the characteristics of methodology  or design  that affect the research  interpretations or findings. They act as constraints in the ability of the researcher to generalize utilization or application of  the research findings  to practice. The constraints  result from the way the researcher has designed  the study or/and  the techniques employed  to ensure external  and  internal  validity. One of the key research limitatfons is that its findings will only  apply  to Machakos  County, exclusive of all Kenya’s 46  counties, and  thus the conclusions  may  not be directly applicable to other Kenyan Counties.

Management ofMachakos County Government,  specifically  Ministry  of Water, may  be  unwilling to offer permission to do the research as this study necessitates sensitive information like estimated and completion cost of water projects. A permit will also be collected from NACOSTI to use for obtaining data. Additionally, the study will provide assurance  to  the  leadership  of  Machakos County who will be given a final copy of the report. There might be reluctance on the part of the respondents to provide information due to fear of victimization from politicians and government. Researcher will strive to win their trust by disclosing that purpose of the study as  purely  academic and give them an assurance that responses they provide wi U be handled with anonymity. This will help improve trust by respondents and improve validity of tile information provided by the respondents to the researcher.

1.9 Delimitations of the Study

This research will be delimited to water projects in rural and urban areas of Machakos County. Despite numerous water projects concentrated in Machakos County, the residents of Machakos County Are sti ll lackin g water. In addition, the County comprises of both urban areas and rural areas. The stud y will focus exclusively on the four components of res ult s-based management stake holder participation, risk management, selec tion of performance indicators and continuous le arnin g and improvement which are most relevant to county water projects ‘ performance.

1.10 Assumptions of the Study

The researcher assumes that each respondent will show up and be ready to provide correct information which will make the findings credible. The study assumes that result based management and organizational resources influence performance of water projects.

1.11            Definition of Significant Terms Used in the Study

Results based management: This is a management approach that contributes directly and indirectly in the achievement of a given results, ensuring that their processes contribute to accomplishment of desired results (outc omes, outputs and higher -le vel impact or goals) and it encompasses stake holder participation, risk management, selection   of performance indicators and le arnin g and tak i ng collective action.

Stakeholder participation: This is the procedure throu gh which an organization involves persons who may be impacted by its choices or who can influence how th.ose choices are implemented. It entails stake holde r sensitization, stake holder consultation, incorporation of stake holder inputs in design and planning, incorporation of stake holder input s in implementation and monitoring and involvement of stake holder in decision making.

Risk management This is the process of recognizing, analyzing, as well as mitigating any risk that develops in the course of project’s life cycle in order to keep the project on track and on schedule to fulfill its objectives. It encompasses risk Identification, risk analysis, risk mitigation, risk review as well as risk monitoring.

Selection of Key performance indicators: This is a process of identifying appropriate performance indicators that direct, objective, usefulness of management and attributable through careful thought, collaboration, iterative refining and consensus building. It entails selection of KPis, development of tools, data collection, analysis of KPis and reporting on KPis.

Continuous Learning and Improvements: This is the process of ensuring continuous data driven learning to inform improvement of skills, competence, strategies, interventions, and taking management actfon and decisions informed by data to improve systems and processes for achieving common project goals and objectives. It encompasses review of performance, utilization of reports, management decision making, communication and dissemination and improvement of projects.

Performance of county water projects: It is the general quality of county water project in relation to achievement of results, its impact, value to the beneficiaries and effectiveness in implementation measured using ratio of households ‘ access to water and sanitation services, service fees for water supply provided to community, ratio of systems for supplying water constructed and quality of water.

Organizational resources: This refers to all accessible assets to an organization for usage during a project life cycle and these resources include human resources, technological resources, physical assets and financial resources and information resources.

1.12            Organization of the Study

The research is divided into 5 chapters. The introduction is the first chapter and it provides background of the study. This section covers background of the study, performance of county government water projects, result based management, organizational resources, Machakos County water projects, problem statement, purpose of the study, objectives, research hypotheses, research questions, significance of the study, limitations and delimitations of the study, definition of significant terms, assumptions of the study, and organization of the study.

Second chapter covers performance of county government water projects ; stakeholders ‘ participation and county government water projects ‘ performance; risk management and performance of county government water projects; key performance indicators and performance of county government water projects; continuous learning and improvement on performance of county government water projects; result based management and performance of county government water projects; and organizational resources and performance of county government water projects; theoretical framework; conceptual framework; knowledge gaps and summary of literature.

Chapter three entails research methodology and focus on research paradigm, study population, research design, sample size as well as sampling procedures, research instrument, pilot testing of research tools, validity and reliability of research tools, procedures for collecting, data collection methods, ethical issues as well as operationalization of study variables. Moreover, chapter four sets out data analysis, presentation as well as interpretation of the results and also discussion of the study findings. Last chapter will cover summary of study results, conclusions, recommendations for practice and policy as well as suggestion for more studies.


2.1 Introduction

This section reviews empirical and theoretical literature linked the study based on themes formulated from the research objectives. The thematic divisions include: performance of county government water projects; stakeholders ‘ participation and county government water projects ‘ performance; risk management and county government water projects performance; key performance indicators and performance of county government water projects; continuous learning and improvement on performance of county government water projects; result based management and performance of county government water projects; and organizational resources and performance of county government water projects. It also covers theoretical framework, conceptual framework, knowledge gaps and also the summary of literature.

22   Performance of County Government Water Projects

The contemporary global economy has resulted in increased competition m the business ecosystem, both locally and globally. Companies have been obliged to adapt their strategy in order to stay competitive and maintain market share as a result of growing competition. Projects must be managed well (Bergeron, 2008) against the three key project constraints: scope, budget, and time to generate business value. A project is said to have been delivered effectively if it was completed according to the scope of the client, on time, and within the budget.

The ultimate significance of project performance is accomplished through the avoidance of failure by making sure the cost budget, time approved, design and the technical standards involving fitness, quality, functionality, environmental protection, safety and purpose are adhered to (Flanagan and Norman 2003). Kishk and Ukaga (2008) argue that succe ssful project management is analyzed on performance criteria, budget as well as time of completion, utilization of resources and acceptance by the customer. In Kenya, Omondi, Odek and Siringi (20 I 9) found a significant relationship between project management skills and performance ofKisumu Water and Sanitation Company Projects.

The divisions/departments of an organization/company, as well as its staff/ team, are critical to project succe ss. This necessitates a great organizational struc ture that is adapted to a company ‘s team, goals, and division(s), as well as one that enables employees to understand their role in the greater picture and vision. As a result, a correct framework should be established to ensure that project procedures go smoothl y. In order for a water project to perform as required, the struc ture and the stake holder s involved should be well organized. On a study by Phinehas and Odoyo (2019), it is revealed that community level of participation by beneficiaries as well as ownership, training and education of project employees and le aders, governance struc ture, and fundamental management skills of leaders, among other elements for example financial as well as technical supp ort, can all influence the performance level of community water management project.

It is recommended that organiza6ons examine the quality of the ou tput, the specified budget/cost, and completion time, as well as other factors such as safety, health, customer loyalty, and environmental friendliness, when executing their projects. When most of these indications are included, measuring the project ‘s performance in later analysis becomes simple, and it becomes the baseline against which future initiatives can be measured. Because succe ssfu l project execution necessitates a large number of stakeho lder s, the systems in place should include everyone who will be impacted by the project in some manner, from the bottom to the top (Bergeron, 2008).

Maimuna and Kidombo (20 I 7) assessed the factors influencing the water projects ‘ performance. Descriptive survey design was deployed in this the research. Community participation and satisfaction, project management, water infrastructure and maintenance funds influenced water projects’ performance in E waso g’ iro water projects according to the report. Moreover, in Kakamega County, Atwa and Mudi (2019) evaluated the factors affecting performance of selected water projects. Moreover, the researcher employed cross-sectiona l survey design. Additionally, the study measured performance of water supply projects and concluded that there existed a correlation between service quality, completion within budget, cost effectiveness and timeliness of project completion and performance of selected water projects.

Additionally, Githua and Wanyoike (2015) conducted a study in Njoro Sub County to evaluate factors affecting performance of water projects. Moreover, the study adopted mixed survey design. The study also measured performance of community water projects within Njoro Sub County and found a relationship between performance of community water projects with completion within budget, completion within timeline, community members ‘ satisfaction and project governance.

23  Stakeholders’ participation and Performance of County Government Water Projects

In Australia, Arnirhossein (2014) carried out an evaluation of stakeholder ‘ s participation level during planning and its effect on project building project. Data gathering was done using survey questionnaire that was provided to 200 firms who were part of residential building sector. According to the research results, the four groups of stakeho lde r’ s engagement levels did affect the projects performance. Having focused on building projects, the study findings cannot be generalized to other projects suclh as the county government water project. In addition, the study was carried out in Australia and therefore the findings cannot be generalized to other countries.

In Water, Hygiene (Wash) and Sanitation Project in Rwanda, Kobusingye, Mung ‘ atu and Mulyungi (20 I 7) evaluated whether stakeho ld ers’ participation influences project outcomes. The descriptive surve y design was employed in this research. Que stio nnaire was employed to acquire primary data from community members. The researcher found that stakehold ers’ involvement in diverse stages in project life cycle including: project initiation, planning, execution, as well as review had influence on project success. Moreover, the results discovered that stakeholders ‘ participation in project execution had the most influence on project outcome followed by participation in project review, then participation in planning whilst stakeholder ‘ s participation in identification of projects had the le ast impact on the project ‘s outcome.

Using a descriptjve study design, Nyandika and Karanja (2014 ) carried out a research on the association between the participation of stake holders and water projects’ performance in Kenya. Qualitative as well as quantitative data collection methods were deployed. Moreover, study ‘s target population was 251 stake holder s and stratified random sampli ng approach assisted in selec tion of 30% of 251 participants. Findings showed that stakeho lder ‘ s sensitization and awareness through conferences, seminars and involvement in the feasibility studie s positively impacted the performance of the water Projects. The support from top management including: the approval of funds, commitment, good will, and decis ion-making participation for the projects also positively affected the performance of selec ted water projects.

Additionally, Wamugu (2017) evaluated whether stakeholder participation influences water project performance in Ke nya ‘s Mathira East constituency. A descriptive study design was used, with a questionnaire used to obtain both quantitative as well as qualitative data from Mathira East constituency. In the 2013 /2014 financial year, 1 5 water projects were launched in Mathira East Constituency. Participation of stake holders in planning phase, implementation, and monitoring has significant impact on project succe ss. The study found that stakeholders ‘ participation in project initiation activities such as project identification, screening, and selection was the most important factor as stakeho lder had the highest influence on what projects could be implemented and therefore greater acceptance ad performance of water projects by stakeholders.

Hemanta (20 I 2) did an evaluation of the influence of stake ho lders on social performance of infrastructure projects Moreover, the research used SNA methodology, where stakeho lder s of the projects were first recognized and the researcher further inve stigates their role and relationship to the project using struc tured interv ie ws. A case study was chosen and used as a representation for the framework application. The respondents ‘ study samp le was compiled using stratified and simp le random sampli ng approaches. The findings indicated that the main contribution of the research was the identification of how individual stake holders affected social networks within the project and coming up with indicator of social performance by syn thesizing of various stakeholder s necessities in the network. In conclusions, social networks determined the level and influe nce s of stakeho ld er’ s participation in a given project.

In a descriptive study, Owuor (2017 ) studied the significance of stakeho lder participation in completion of sanitat ion and water projects situated in Nairobi City Coun ty’s informal areas. The project managers ‘ data was collected using a standard ized questfonnaire. Quantitative as well as qualitative data analysis methodologies were deployed to analyze acquired data. By the end of the enquiry, Owuor discovered that stake holder engagement in terms of sensitization of stakeho lder s’ , stake holder s’ consultation and stakeho lder s’ involvement in decision making, influe nce s completion of sanitat ion and water supply projects within informal areas in Kenyan context.

In Kenya, Uasin Gishu County Oyugah and Onyango (20 I 9) studied the effect of stakeholder participation on water projects ‘ performance. The research employed descriptive study design and the study population encompassed technical staff residing in Uasin Gishu County respectively. The study results indicated that stakeholder involvement leads to improved performance in the water projects in the County. To sum up, stakeholder involvement positively and significantly effects discharge, quality and completion of water projects within the county.

2.4    Risk management and Performance of County Government Water Projects

In a descriptive study, Otieno (20I8) examined the link between RM strategy and the success of the Kosovo sanitation and water project within Nairobi County. This research included quantitative as well as qualitative data. The researcher adopted descriptive survey design and mixed method research strategy. The study population was 260 members of household. According to the findings, community involvement, fair gender engagement, and established water use policies all have a direct impact on risk avoidance in the project.

In Indonesia, Hidayatno, Moeis, Sutrisno and Maulidiah (20 I 5) evaluated the impact of risks on project ‘ s value by examining the maximum loss (risk value) in the Net Present Value (NPV) that may be obtained when one or more risks affect the project. From the results of identification and analysis of risks in construction of a water supply project in South Bali, the proposed risk management planning includes transferring the risk to third parties, implementing lenders’ choices, implementing a PPP, and establishing a complete and clear standard operation procedure for risk mitigation.

In descriptive research design, Aduma (2018 ) examined whether project RM techniques influences the performance of county government water projects in Kenya. Contractors, consultants, and project engineers for ten wa ter projects in Nairo bi City County made up the study ‘s population. There were 380 respondents from the county who were participating in projects. Questionnaires were employed to gather primary data. Moreover, the stud y revealed that the most prevalent risk to the airobi City Coun ty governmen t on construction projects included: costing of projects, project designing, and dispute over land and construction. The stud y revealed that le gal risk management, construction risk management and contract RM had inverse relationship with the performance of selec ted construction projects while design RM had positive correlation with performance of wa ter projects.

In Jordan, Mhirat and l rtemeh (2017 ) conducted a research to assess RM and its effect on water projects succe ss. The Population of thi s research was 62 water projects. To meet the stud y’s aims, descriptive ana l ytic al method was deployed. Data was gathered via a questionnaire. The findings demonstrated that RM com pone nts such as risk pl ann ing as well as definition, risk analysis, reaction to danger, risk evaluation as well as risk review have a positive assoc iation in attain ing water project success.

Junior (2013 ) evaluated the effect of RM on water project performance in Brazil. Methodological approach involved 4 I 5 water projects. The findings show that implementing risk management methods improves project succe ss significan tl y. T he presence of a risk manager has a benefic ial effect on project succe ss. Furthermore, paying attention to unc e rtaintie s during the project and employing risk management approac hes had an impact on the performance of the project. Moreover, deep under stand ing the project context and environment are critical succe ss factors that should always be in radar of project managers and risk managers.

Kinyua and Mburu (20 I 5) assessed whether RM strategies influences county water projects ‘ performance in Nairobi, Kenya. Additionally, the researcher deployed descriptive research design. In Nairobi, Kenya, study population was 48 water projects. Sample size was determined using random sampling methodology. The primary data was gathered by employing a questionnaire.The study discovered a positive association between risk management strategies and performance of county government water projects in Kenya.

Using a descriptive research design, Nyarangi, Ogolla and Kitheka (2021) examined the association between project risk management processes and performance of borehole projects ‘ within Mombasa County. Risk management, measured in terms of risk evaluation, risk handling, project risk control, risk identification as well as risk control have an effect on borehole projects ‘ performance according to the report. However, the research was limited to Mombasa County and focused on only borehole water projects. In addi6on, the study used a descriptive research design, which only allows the description of variables.

2.5     Key Performance Indicators and Performance of County Government Water Projects

In a critical review of literature, Husnain, Rehan and Tesfamariam (20 I 4) studied the performance indicators for SM-WSSs. Comprehensive review of related literature showed the appropriateness of described performance evaluation methods for SM-WSSs in terms of ease of use (low data needs) and comprehensiveness (all the components of a WSS). Descriptive survey design was employed. The study targeted 453 respondents. It was found that selection of KPis, development of tools, data collection, analysis of KPis and reporting on KPis influence water project performance.

In France, Berg (2020) assessed the applicability of performance indicators to enhancing management of water projects in developing countries. The field test took place in 15 Member nations between 1997 and 1999. This report explains the strategy used and details the field tes t findings. Average road user costs; degree of satisfaction with journey time as well as its reliability and road user information quality; risk to protected road users; risk to unprotected road users; environmental policy/programs; market research and customer feedback processes; long-term programs; resources allocation to road infrastructure were among the I 5 indicators that were field tested. The stud y found that the above indicators influence the performance of water projects. Collecting data and reporting on these indicators there fore helps project managers to under stand the performance of their projects and make adaptations to improve performance.

Brady, Goodman, Kerri and Reed (2017 ) conducted a stud y to examine the performance indicators for waste water collection systems in developing countries. The researcher employed descriptive research design. Moreover, stud y targe ted I 27 individuals. Questionnaires were employed as a research tool to collect data. The stud y fo und that tracking and reporting on proper installations, inspections, operations, maintenance and repair of water collection conveyance, treatment and disposal facili tie s have a significant influence on operation as well as maintenance cost and effectiveness of water facilities.

In African Countries, Adam and Abde l-Magid (20 I 5) examined the KPis for inte grated water resources management. The wa ter resource management (WRM) efficiency plan target was evaluated through a questionnaire. The key performance indic ators used were : mean ann ual rainfall, data collection effort, annual surface runoff and pollution of ground wa ter. The focus of th is stud y was on the quality and composition of KPis sets utilized in IWRM. In its current interpretation, the notion ofIWRM was introduced. The regional WRM sector is at varying phases of implementing IWRM, according to a review of IWRM literature from Eastern African countries.

Vilanova, Filho and Balestieri (2014) assessed the performance indicators for management of water supply. The study deployed descriptive research design. Moreover, population of interest was 77,250 people the beneficiaries of UNICEF funded rural water supplie s in Nyanza (Lake Victoria South) and Western (Lake Victoria North). Data was collected using questionnaire method. The researcher found that KPis of a project involve aspects of effectiveness as well as efficiency. Managers can quantify inputs efficiency and effectiveness of services delivered by using performance measurement systems and indicators, according to the study. The performance measurement must be developed in collaborative process with stakeho lder s and involving technical actors according to the characteristics of the system and based on performance goals.

2.6    Continuous Learning and Improvement on Performance of County Government Water Projects

In a report, PAO of US (2018 ) stud ie d monitoring and evaluation for learning and performance of water projects. Moreover, the study deployed descriptive survey design. Moreover, the study population was 251 middle level managers who are directly involved in project implementation. The study findings revealed that continuous le arning improvement influences performance of water projects. The study further noted that management decision making, communication and dissemina tion and improvement of projects influence project performance.

Back.Jund and Sundqvist (2018 ) examined Continuous improvement and its influence on the water project-based organization in Sweden. Six management team s from six distinct project-based firms participated in an exploratory and qualitative approach, with data collected throu gh focus groups interviews. The results indicated that a communal approach is limited by project managers ‘ excessive le vels of autonomy to improvements in project-based orga niza tions. Consequently, the overall project-based organizatio ns’ performance is subordinated to project managers ‘ individual project performance, which is the opposite of continuous improvement. Furthermore, management teams appear to maintain a project output focus, thereby complicating quality enhancement initiatives from project-based organization viewpoint.

Using descriptive cross-sectional correlation research design, Winiko, Mbugua and Kyalo (20 I 8) evaluated the correlation between using M&E and DET project performance in Malawi. Results indicated that the using M&E outcomes in project i mprove me nt , decis ion-mak ing, as well as le arnin g have had significant positive impact on the DET project’s performance.

In Kenya, Kiumbe, Wambugu and Luketero (2018 ) assessed the effect of the influence of continuous learning and improvement on water projects performance in Kisumu County. Mixed research approac h guided this research. Moreover, the study discovered that par6cipation level of stake holder in the use of M&E outcome was average, but there was significan t effect on the stake holder involvement in the use of M&E outcome on the water projects ‘ performance.

Kithinji, Gakuu and Kidombo (2017 ) evaluated the impact of continuous le arning and improvement on water projects ‘ performance in Meru Coun ty. Moreover, the study employed mixed mode methodology, which included descriptive as well as cross-sectional surveys, as well as descriptive and inferential analyses of the data acquired. According to the findings, a significant amount of money was allocated to several water projects. It was revealed that utilization of reports, management decision making and communication influence performance of water projects.

Using mixed methods research approach (descriptive and correlational design), Okul and Nyonje (2020) evaluated the effect of continuous learning and improvement on performance of water projects. This survey included 232 project personnel from NGOs in Ke nya ‘s Kisumu Central Sub­ County. The open-ended reactions were collected an also coded suitably for further study of themes via content and comparative analysis in order to analyze qualitative data. The findings demonstrate that there exists a significant association between utilization of reports, management decision making, communication and dissemination and improvement of projects and performance of water projects.

2.7    Result -based management and Performance of County Government Water Projects

In a retrospective study, Cordova-Pozo, Hoopes and Cordova (20 I 8) examined effect of resu lts­ based management framework on performance of Community Embedded Reproductive Health Care for Adolescents (CERCA) project in Bolivia, Nicaragua and Ecuador. The results indicated that the utilizatfon resu lts-based management lead to an improvement in accountability, effectiveness and efficiency in projects. However, the study took place in Bolivia, Nicaragua and Ecuador and therefore the results might not applicable to other types of projects including County government water projects.

In a descriptive research study in China, Xue, Turner and Lecoeuvre (20 I 3) examined the utilization of M&E system that is based on findings in the delivery results on key infrastructure projects. The findings indicated that M&E system that is based on findings was adopted in 9 infrastructure projects and it lead to improvement in their performance. The implementation of M&E system that is based on findings for identifying and realizing benefits throughout project life cycle, as well as establishing a project structure with clear duties for owners of the project, sponsors, and other stakeholder leads to an improvement in performance. Adopting results-oriented approach throughout project life cycle, and complementing this with governance struc ture that assigns clear roles for delivering results as well as realizing benefits, can improve project performance. However, the study will use a descriptive research study, which cannot be used to establish relationships between variables.

In Uganda, Kienzler (20 I 5) examined resu lt-based Management on performance of commun ity­ based projects in Iganga District. The study collected data by use of struc tured questionnaires. The results indicated that resu lt-based Management has an effect on the performance of co mmun ity­ based projects in Iganga District. Having used str uc tured questjonnaires, only quantitative data was collected and hence no qualitative data was collected to support quantitative data.

Otundo and Langat (20 I 9) examined the effect of management based on the results on projects ‘ performance within public sector. The study used a critical review of literature. The findings revealed that res ults-based management is a very relevant strategic effort that has a considerable impact on the performance of public -sector initiatives. Res ult -based management is focused on the overall influence of projects on socie ty and has a clear link to the outc omes of specific projects. It is an outcomes-oriented effort that aims to remove all bottlenecks that may prevent a project from producing improved results. It begins at the outcome level and progresses to the impact level, as opposed to standard performance initiatives that may terminate at the ou tput level. The stud y adopted critical review of literature there fore, no primary data was collected.

2.8    Organizational Resources and Performance of County Government Water Projects

In Kenya, Aciita and Wanjohi (2019) examined the impact of resource allocation on county governme nts’ expansion of water treatment projects in Meru Sewerage and Water Services. Moreover, the study employed descriptive research design, with 13 5 management and heads of sections as the target population,   including CECM, chief officers, MEW ASS management, county d irec tors, and MCAs. The researcher used census method, which enabled all I 35 participants to take part. A questionnaire was used to gather information. Leadership, financial resources, political variables, and employee competency all have significan t positive impact on water project expansion.

In Kenya, Josephine and Kimencu (2020) carried out a study on resource allocation in stra tegy execution and performance of Nairobi County Government. The units of observation were 161 employees  in ten departments  in county  Government of Nairobi. The  research  used  primary  as well as secondary data. Secondary data was gathe red throu gh Nairobi City Government annual reports while primary data was gathe red using se mi-structure d questionnaires. Close d-ended questions yielded quantitative data, while open-ended questions generated qualitative  data. Moreover, the study revealed  that the resource allocation  has positive  and  also significan t impact on the performance of county governments.

In Kenya, Otulia, Mbeche, Wainaina and Njihia (2017 ) evaluated whether organizational resources influences water projects ‘ performance. Moreover, the study employed a cross-sectional research surve y design. A questionnaire was used to collect primary data from a samp le of 282 people. The findings show that abundant organizational resources lead  to enhancement  in  performance  of various water projects. The study , thus recommends that management of no n-governmenta l organizations shou ld efficiently employ limited organization resources and also  train  their employees in managerial skills to improve project performance.

In Kenya, Musyoki and Gakuu (2018 ) assessed whether organizational resources influe nce s performance of water projects by county governme nts: case stud y of Embu County. The survey was conducted on a target group of I 00 people using a descriptive research approach. Moreover, the study relied on primary data gathered via questionnaires that comprised both structured and unstructured questions. The study discovered that stakeholders, management, governance and organizational resources influence execution of county water projects significantly.

2.9    Theoretical framework

A theory helps the researcher to identify a research problem and come up with the most appropriate approach of solving the problem. The theoretical framework explains and introduces the theory that explains why the current research problem exists. Moreover, the main theory will be results based management theory because it covers all aspects resu lts-based management, which includes stakeholder participation, risk management, selection of performance indicators and continuous learning and improvement.

2.9.1         Result Based Management Theory

Res ult s-based management (RBM) theory can be traced back to Peter Drucker in the year 19 54 (Drucker, 19 54). It is derived from management by results or management by objectives, which are extensively utilized in other policy domains. The results based management was first utilized in the private sector to manage firm objectives, but in the 1990s it began to be utilized in the public sector and non-governme ntal organizations (Serrat & Bue ntje n, 2015). The term “resu lts-based manageme nt” refers to directing all actions and resource allocation toward achieving clearly defined and measurable outcomes. Resu lts-based management improves openness and accountability by allowing initiatives to complement one another and eliminate duplication and waste. The result based theory makes an assumption that social changes can be controlled, predicted as well as reduced to a one overarching problem (Karl et al., 20I0).

Vahamaki and Molander (20I I ) are advocates of the above theory. The theory indicates that information on performance helps in the adaptation and understanding of the development process and in making informed decisions. Karl, Rodriques, and Sheils (2010 ) identify RBM as a wide management process whose aim is the achievement outcomes and improve performance. There are three phases that are part of result based management theories. They include performance measurement, strategic planning as well as management ofresult based performance. Additionally, Karl et al. (2010) explains phases as the recognition of clear as well as measurable goals in the first phase, in addition targets and indicators are set. In the second phase there is the development of performance monitoring systems, the review, analyses and reporting of the results after comparing them to the targets. In the final phase the findings, after the evaluation are used to come up with lessons and understands the weaknesses, strengths and advantages. The information about performance obtained in this step is also useful to the internal management as it is used as a learning tool, for RM and also used as a reporting tool to partners and stakeholders. This theory is employed to explain selection of KPis in performance of county government water projects.

The study will use the resu lt-based management theory to assess whether result based management influence performance of County Government Water Projects. Results Based Management Theory involves achieving results, improving performance, learning and integrating lessons learned in the improvement of projects and monitoring and reporting on performance. Results based management is a project management strategy through which all stakeholders, contributing directly or indirectly to achieving a set of results, ensure that their processes, products and services contribute to the achievement of desired results (outputs, outcomes and higher-le vel goals or impact). The stakeholders in turn use the information and evidence on actual results to inform dec ision-making on the design, resourcin g and delivery of programmes and activities as we ll as for accountability and reporting.

2.9.2         Stakeholders’ theory

The above theory was established by Donaldson and Preston in 19 95. The stake holder theory is an excellent way to comprehend the organization in this situati on (Oakley, 20 I 1). According to Harrison and Wicks (20 I 3), the theory asserts that the firm’s stakeholder s participate in it for their own benefit, and that no one benefit is more important than th.e other. T here are a variety of stake holder s who must be considered including prospective employees, associated firms, the public and prospective customers. The stake holder theor y assumes that organizations can only be regarded succe ssfu l if it provides value to the majority of its stakeholders.

The importance of stakeho lder theory is that it allows managers to effectively manage their company ‘s stakeho lder s (Ketokivi and Mahoney, 2016). Different studie s have detailed why stake holder management is important (Sama-Lang and Zesung, 2016). The se studies point out that a firm’s stake holders must be treated fairly in order for it to remain relevant in the market. The theory emerged from strategic management and has since been applied to a variety of academic fields. The theor y has been applied in diverse ways, including criteria for evaluation, evidence, methodologies and concepts (Harrison and Wicks, 20I3).

The theory, as indicated by Wu and Wokutch (2015), emphasizes that the relationship that exists between stake holder s and top management is important. Managers should also be aware that involvement of various stake holders can influence the project’s succe ss (Moldogaziev and Resh, 2016). The level of participation is determined by the stakeholder s’ relationship with management, but not junior employees. The central idea is that the firm relates with various groups, and that these relations can be upheld  based on the stake holde rs’ interests, which can lead  to their support for various projects in the long run (Fokum and Njonguo, 2016).

Stakeholders ‘ theory will be used in this study to show the effect of stakeholder participation in performance of County government water projects. Stakeholder theory has four basic premises, according to Bridoux and Stoelhorst (20 I 4). First, an organization/project will have a variety of relationships with a variety of stakeholders who are or can influence project’s or firm ‘s decisions. Second, this theory examines the nature of the relationships between the organizat io n’s results and processes and stakeholders. Finally, the theory  asserts  that  interests of  legitimate  stakeholde r’s have intrinsic value, with no interest dominating the others.  Finally,  the  stakeholder  theory examines how managers make decisions. Stakeholder theory  will  be used  in this study  to assess how stakeholder participation influences performance of county gove rnments’ water projects.

2.9.3         General System Theory (GST)

The GST was established by Ludwig von Bertalanffy in 1972 . From sociological view point, systems theory is a trans -d isci pli nary method of an organization (Dong, 2015). Attributes, objects, internal correlation among objects and environment make up the sociological system (Tao & Tam, 2013). Objects are considered as parts, elements, or variables within the system, as indicated by Zenko et al. (20 1 3 ). Properties, characteristics, and qualities of a system and its objects are known as attributes (Valentinov, Hielscher and Pies, 2016 ). Internal associations exist among objects in each system. The system normally exists in a situation. The main assumption of systems theory is that a complex system is made up of many smaller systems, and that the interactions between these smaller systems are what give rise to the complex system we know today.

System is defined as a collection of items that impacts the other in the environment and they form broader pattern diverse from system parts. Moreover, system can further be regarded as a group of objects acting in unison to achieve a given outcome (Broks, 20 I 6). The system boundary is the line that separates the system from its surroundings (Moldogaziev and Resh, 2016). Systems are categorized into two: open and closed. Moreover, an open system can freely relate with its surroundings and is exemplified by material and information exchanges with tlhe outside world (Broks, 2016).

This theory will be deployed to show the impact of risk management on performance of Machakos county gove rnments’ water projects. Water projects are regarded as open systems that regularly relate with outside forces for example government agencies, members of the community and donors. The open system theory stresses on the correlation between diverse stakeholders in an organization or a project. In employing the concept open system theory, Kast (20 I I ) revealed that the organization is made up of input and output energy and the output energy is what reactivates the organization.

2.9.4         Resource -Based Theory

Birger Wemerfelt formulated the theory in 1984. The focus of this theory is on the package of intangible and tangible resources available to a company (Kozlenkova and Palmatier, 2014). Moreover, Gillis and Ketchen (2014) put emphasis on the difference between resources and abilities. They define capability as the resource which are specifically to an organization and are not transferable. Capability should be targeted at enhancement of other resources in the firm. A resource is defined as stock of accessible factors regulated or owned by the organization. Capabilities are organiz ations’ ability to organize its own available resources. Bundling resources essentially increases capacities. The resource -based view makes two main assumptions: that all of the organization’s resources should be heterogeneous and immobile. Heterogeneous refers to the differences in skills and competencies between organizations while immobile implies that resources cannot move from one organization to another for the short term (Jensen, Cobbs, and Turner, 2016).

Resources are process inputs that can be divided into intangible and tangible categories. Land, buildings, machinery, equipment, funds, and human resources are examples of tangible resources (Gillis et al., 2014 ). Tangible resources are widely available and so provide no advantage because competitors can quickly purchase them. Intangible resources are those that can’t be touched although are nonetheless owned by a company. Brands, trademarks, reputation, and intellectual property are among them. Intangible assets, distinct from physical resources, are usually formed over time, making them difficult to imitate and gain an immediate competitive edge. According to RBV theory, a firm ‘s resources influence its performance (Jensen, Cobbs, and Turner, 2016). These resources include internal organizational processes, assets, knowledge attributes and information that assist the organization to formulate and obtain strategies to enhance product or service efficiency, awareness, effectiveness, quality and image. When utilized appropriately, resources help in improving performance in the firm.

Resource based view theory will be used to evaluate impact of organizational resources on performance of selected county gove rnments’ water projects. Important resources in the implementation of water projects include financial resource, human resource, physical assets, technological resources and information resources. The adequacy, availability and timely release of these resources considerably influence performance of Coun ty water projects and practice of resu lt-based management.

2.10     Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework showing the association between variables is shown in figure I

Moderating Variable

Organizational Resources

Independent Variables (RBM)                                 7. Ho

Stakeholder Participation


  1. 0

Risk Management

Risk Identification Risk mitigation

Risk analysis Risk review

Risk Monitoring

Key Performance lndjcators

Continuous Learning and improvement

  1. Ho


Dependent Variable

 Performance of county government’s water projects


supply systems

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework ofReslllt Based Management, Organizational Resources and Performance of Collnty Government Water projects

Stakeholder participation through  Stakeholder sensitization, Stakeholder  consultation, In corporation of stakeholder inputs in design and planning, Incorporation of stakeholder inputs in implementation and monitoring and Involvement of stake holder in decision making ensures that all stakeho lder s agree on the scope, budget and allocation of resources in projects. Risk management entails risk analysis, risk ide ntification , risk mitigation, risk review as well as risk monitoring in an effort to ensure that possible risks do not interfere with the projects budget, schedu le and achievement of objectives. The identification and selec tion of Key Performance Ind ic ators helps in ensuring that the progress of project implementation can be tracked and monitored. It also involves development of too ls, data collection, analysis of KPis and reporting on KPis so as to inform decision making and improvement during the implementation of a project.

Continuous improvement during project implementation is an important component as it help s in reducing risks and ensuring that the objectives of the project are achieved within budgeL Continuous Leaming and improvement involve review of performance, utilization of reports, management decision making, communication and dissemination and improvement of projects. The implementation of resu lts-based management requires resources such as financial resource, human resource, physical assets, techno logic al resources and information resources.

2.11     Knowledge Gaps

Although various studies have been conducted on the resu lts-based management including: stake holder participation, risk management, selec tion of performance indicators and learning and continuous   improvement,   these studies have been   limited   to different dependent variables, loc at ions and sectors. The present research will hence seek to fill knowledge gap by researching specifically on performance of county government water projects.

VariableAuthor (Year)Title of the Stud yMethodolog yRes ultsKnowledge Gaps
Stakeholders ‘ participationAmi rhossein (201 4)An eva l uatio n of stake holder’ s partic ipatio n le vel dur ing platmi ng of the build in g projectDescript ive research design and data collectio n was done us in g a survey ques tio nnaireThe result s i ndica te d that stake holder’s engagement le vels affec te d the projects pe rfo rmance.The s tud y fai le d to show how the use of stake holder’s part ici pation in flue nces pe rfor mance of projects the refo re , the results are not be app lied to the present stud y to fi ll this gap the curre nt s tud y w ill co nce nt rate on stake holder part ic i pation and pe rfor mance of co unt y wa te r projects
 Nyand ika and Karanja (2014)Relatio nshi p betwee n the partic ipatio n of stake hold ers and road projects ‘ perfo rmance at Ke NHADescr iptive stud y des ignTh e result s showed that s take ho lder partic i patio n affec te d perfor mance or road projectsTh is s tud y was limited to road projects’ pe rfor mance at Ke NHA thus the result s can no t be applie d to th is researc h. To fill thi s gap, the current stud y wi U s pecifica U y conce ntrate on how stakeholder partic i patio n in flue nces pe rfo rm ance of coun ty water pi<Jjec ts in Machakos co unt y
 WamuguIm portance ofA descriptivePart ic i patio n ofThese result s did not adeq ue tl y show the
(2 0 17 )stake holders’research designstakeho lders ini nflu e nce o f s take holder sens itizatio n,
 partic ipatio n on the CDF projects ‘was use d , wi th ques tio nnaireCDF project plan nin g,stakeho lder cons ult atio n and stakeholder invo lvement on perfor mance of count y
 perfo rmance inused to acquirei nitia tio n,governm ent  water projects hence the result s
 Mathira eas t co ns titu e ncyquantit ative as we U as qualit ative data.exec ut io n as we U as par tic ipatio n had positi veca nno t be applie d to this researc h Th e s tud y deployed descr iptive rese arch design, whic h ca nnot be used to tes t
   signi fic ant impactrelatio nshi ps betwee n variables s tatis tic all y.
   on projec t perfor mance.Th is s tud y wiJI use a co rrelatio na1 research design.
 Owuor (2017)The imp act ofDescripti veThe stud y fo undThi s stud y was li mited to CDF projects in
 stake ho ld er partic ipatio n onstud y desig nth at stakeho lder part ic i patio nMath ira East co nstitu e ncy , whic h vary from water    projects   in   terms   of   goals    and
 CDF pe rfo rmance of th e project in i nflu e nces CDF projectobjec ti ves as well as reso urces requ irement Th e focus of this s tudy wiII be stakeholder
 Kenya’s Mathi ra pe rfo rmance inpart ic i patio n in water projects in Machakos
 Eas t co ns titu e ncy Ke nya’s Math i ra East co ns titu e ncycount y
RiskOtie no (20 I 8)T he link betwee nMixed me thodTh e s tud yThi s s tud y focused on o ne co mpon ent of
Management risk avo idanceresearchdiscovered thatrisk manage me nt, whic h is risk avoidance
  s trategy andapproach andco mm unit ywhile th e cur rent st ud y will foc us o n ris k
  performance ofdescr i ptiveinvol vement , eq ualanalys is , risk mi tigatio n, and risk rev ie w
  Kosovo sa nitationsur vey designgend erand monitor in g he nce it is unwi se to
  and water project wi thin Nairobi participat ion , and es tablis hed wate rgeneralize the result s to this stud y
  County. use po lic ies have 
    direct effect on 
    project’s risk 
 Hid ayatno,The im pact of risksCross sectionalIdentifi c atio n andThe stud y was li mited to risk identifi c at ion
Moeis ,on the project ‘sstud y designanalysis of risksas a measure of ris k manage ment and faile d
Sutr is no andval ue by exa minin g are important into addr ess the in fluence of risk analysis ,
Maulidi ah (2015 )the maximum loss (risk va lue ) in the NPV co nstruc tio n of a wa te r suppl y project in South Balirisk assess ment and risk miti gatio n o n project pe rfo rmance hence the stud y findin gs are not appl ic able to the prese nt s tud y
 Aduma (20 1 8 )Imp act of projectDescriptiveTh e s tud y fo undHowever , the stud y was li mi te d to projects
 RM tec hniques onresearch designthat the Nairobiin NHIF Fund , whic h consi de rably differ
 project performance City Count yfrom water projects by County governments
 at NHIF in Ken ya gove rnm ent’s mostin ten ns of in stitu tio nal f ramewor ks
   co mmon riskthere fore the stud y findin gs are not
   management practices o napplic able to th is c urren t
   co nstruc tion 
   projects were 
   project cos ting , 
   project des ign, and land and 
   co nstruc tio n d is putes. 
 Mhi rat andIdenti fy RM and itsJord anianThe findin gsHowever , the researcher focused on
lr te mehi mpact on theMin is try ofrevealed that RMprojects Jord anian Min istry of enviro nme nt
(2017)success of projects in JordanianEnvironment projects incompo nents ( ris k planning as well astherefore it is imprud en t to generalize results to this s tud y because of disparity in
  M ini s try of envi ronm e ntNo rth , Central, and South Jordan cons titut e d  the stud y’s populatio n, with 62 projects.defi niti o n, ris k analysis, reaction to danger, ris k review and evaluatio n) have sig njfic ant positive co rrelatio n with pro jec t s uccess.le gal framewo rks and geog raphic al setti ng between Ke nya and Jordan
Key Performance IndicatorsHus nru n, Rehan and Tesfamar iam (2014 )T he perfo rmance i ndic ato rs for SM- WSSsCriti c al revie w of lit e ratureSi mpli c it y and co mp rehens i veness were K.Pl sHowever , the study em plo yed critic al review of related li te ratu re fro m journals a nd books and thus prim ary data was not collec ted hence it is i mprude nt to apply the results to thjs s tud y beca use of d jsparity in data collec tio n methods
 Berg (2020)App lica bilj ty of pe rfo rmance i ndic ato rs to en hanc in g the management of road adm ini s tratio nThe stud y used secondary dataThe stud y discovere d that pe rfo rmance i ndica to rs i nfl ue nce pe rfor mance of road admi nis tratio n.Th e focus of th is s tudy was road admjnis tratio n and road projects diffe r from wa ter projec ts in te rms of reso urces req ui rement and tec hn ic al sk ill s req u i re d in im ple mentatio n.
 Brady, Goodman,Perfor mance i ndic ato rs for was teDescriptive survey designTh e stud y fo und that properThe s tud y did not use project pe rfor mance as dependent va riable. Thi s s tud y will foc us
Ke rri andwa te r co llec tion i nstallatio ns ,on the effect of Key Perfo rm ance I nd ic ators
Ree d (2017 )syste ms in i nspec tio ns,on pe rfo rm ance of Count y wa te r projects
 deve lo pin g coun tries o peratio ns,Th e stud y used a Desc riptive survey des ign
   mainte nance and towhic h canno t be use d to tes t relatio nships
   repair of water co llec tio n andbetween variables statis tically. Thj s stud y will use a co rre lational res earch des ign
   d is posa l facili ties 
   have a significant 
   on the o pe ratio n and majnte nance 
   cost and 


    effec tiveness of these fac il ities 
 Vil anova, FiJho and Bales tie ri (2014)Indi c ato rs of perfo rmance measure ment fo r management of wa te r suppl y: a rev iew of glo bal cases .Criti c al revie w of lit e ratureThe s tud y discovere d that the key perfo1m ance i ndica to rs of a project in vol ve aspects of both effec tiveness and e fficie ncy.Th e s tud y deployed criti cal revie w of li terature there fo re, no primary data was use d to s how the effec t of key pe rforma nce i ndica tors on pe rformance of projec ts.
Continuous Learning and ImprovementBacklund and Sund qvis t (2018)Continu o us e nhance me nt and its challenges fo r project-based organizatio n in S we den.Ex plo ratory and qualit ative approachThe manage me nt teams uph old project atte ntion, co mpli ca ting advance ment i nitiatives fro m a project- based organi zatio n- view po in tTh is s tud y too k place in Swede n-a deve lo ped count ry he nce it is not wise to apply results to this stud y
 Wini ko,Relatio nshipDescriptiveUtiliza tio n ofBesides bein g li mited to digital educa tion
Mbugua andbetwee n usage ofcross-sectio nalM&E results inprojects , this stud y was condu c ted in
Kyalo (2018)M&E and DETcorrelationprojectMala wi , a count ry whose macroecon omic
 perfo rmance project i n Mala wiresearch designim prove ment , i nforming dec is ione nviro nme nt d iffers co nside rabl y from Ke nya hence it is i mprud ent to utili ze the
   maki ng andres ults to th is s tud y
   learning has 
   significan t positi ve 
   e ffec t o n DET 
   projects ‘ pe rfo nn ance 
 Kium be,Effec t of stake holderMixed me thodsThe s tud yThi s s tud y was li mited to fish farming
Wambu gu andi nvolveme nt inresearch wasdiscovere d that theprojects , whic h requ ir e d diffe rent reso u rces
Luk e terout il izatio n of M&Eusedstake holderand tec hnic al c apaci ty from water projects .
(20 I 8)res ult s o n perfo rmance of in vol veme nt leve l i n us age of M&EIn additio n the stud y used on o nly one compo ne nt of continu o us lear nin g and
    im prove ment.
  Kenya fish farmi ng projects res ults was on averageThis s tud y will foc us o n e ffec t of continuou s le arning and improvement on water pro jec ts’ perfo rma nce .
 Kithinji ,Evolutiona1 abilityThe stud y usedUtilization ofThe s tud y used a descriptive survey des ign,
Gakuu and Kidomb o (2017)building M&E findi ngs utili zation in Meru co mmun i tydescriptive surveyM&E result is anc hore d on aspec t of learn in g, butwhich ca nnot be used to tes t relationships between variables statisti cally. Thi s s tud y will use a correlationa1 research design.
 orga nizatio ns potential to le arn 
   from util izatio n of 
   M&E result has 
   been in suffic ie nt. 
OrganizationalAciita andFactors affectingDescriptiveTh e results foundIn thi s s tud y, organizational reso urces were
ResourcesWanjohi (2019)augmentation of wa ter tr eatme ntresearch designthat lea ders hip , fina nc ial reso urces,used as the depe ndent variable and  not as moderating variable
  projects by Ken ya emp loy eeThis s tud y will use organizatio nal resources
  co unt y governmen ts ca pabili ty, andas a moderating varia ble for the relationship
    political factors have positivebetween result based management and pe rfor mance of County gove rnm e nt water
    effect onprojects.
    augmentatio n of 
    wa ter pro jec ts . 
 Josephine andReso ur ce alloca tionThe w1its ofReso urceIn thi s s tud y, resource alloca tio n was not
Kime ncu (2020)in stra te gy implementation andob servation were 1 61 s taffalloca tio n has positive significantused as a mode rating variab le but as an independent variable
 perfor man ce ofworking in I 0impact on county 
 N airo bi City Countydepartments ingove rnm ents’ 
 Governme nt , KenyaNairo bi Cityperformance. 
  Governm ent .  
 Otuli a,Infl ue nce ofCross-sectionalThe findings showOrganization al performance was the
Mbec he ,orga nizatio nalresearch sur veyth at abundantdependent variable , whic h differs from
Wainaina andreso ur ces ondesignorgan ization alproject performance
Njihia (20I 7)organizatio nal resources le ad toTh e dependent var iab le wi ll be pe rfo rman ce
 performance of an improve me nt inof County governm ent wa te r projects.
 Inte rnatio nal performan ce. 
 Organization for   
  Stand ardizatio n (ISO ) certified organizatio ns in Kenya.   
 Musyo ki andIns tituti onal factorsDescripti veTh e s tud yTh js stud y was l imited to infras tructure
Gakuu (2018)affec tin g theresearch designdiscove red thatprojects in Kenya co un ty gove rnm ents
 exec uti o n ofwas emp lo yedstake ho lders,while th e current study will spec ific all y be
 i nfras tructur eto s urvey I 00ma nage ment,li mit ed to perfo rmance of Machakos
 projects by Kenyarespo ndentsgove rnance as wel ICount y water projects
 co unt y governme nts as organizatio nal 
   resour ces 
   signjfican tly 
   i nfl ue nce 
   i nfrastruc tu re 
   i mple mentatio n 


2.12     Summary of Literature

The results show that stake holder participation measured in terms of sensitization of stakeho lder s’ , consultation with stake holder s, incorporating views of the stake holders in the project design and meaningful involvement of stake holder s in decision making, is important in enhancing the performance of projects. In addition, the literature shows that effective RM stra tegie s enable the identification of project ‘s weaknesses, streng ths, opportunitie s as well as threat s. RM involves risk identification, risk assessment, risk mitigation and also monitoring as well as review of risks.

The literature further shows tha t selecti on of performance ind ic ator s is a key component in the measuri ng performance of projects. The performance ind ic ators should provide information that helps the project measure implementation progress to inform improvement of operations and results. Performance indicators should be direct, attributable and effectively inform management decision making, le arning and quality improvement. The literature also shows that le arning and taki ng collective action influence s the performance of projects. It encompasses building trust, clarifying and an alyz ing the issue , engagement goals and building an effective communication.

The n study was guided by results-based management theor y, stakeholders’ theory, general system the ory and resou rce-based theory. The main theory of this study will be results based management theory because it covers all aspects results based management, which includes stakeholde r participation, risk management, selecti on of performance ind ic ator s and continuous le arning and improvement. Stakeho lders ‘ theory will be used in this study to show the effect of stakeholder participation in the performance of County governmen t water projects. This theory will be deployed to show effect of risk management on performance of Machakos county gove rnments’ water projects. Resource based view theory will be used to evaluate impact of organizational resources on performance of selected county governments ‘ water projects.


3.1 Introduction

This chapter describes the research methodology that will be used to conduct the study. This includes: research paradigm, research design, target population, the sample size as well as sampling technique, research instrument, pilot study, validity as well as reliability of research instrument, data analysis techniques, ethical considerations as well as operationalization of study variables.

32   Research paradigm

The research conceptualized the research paradigm as a collection of agreements and ideas divided among scientists and researchers on how to understand and address research problems. There are three main research philosophies: pragmatism, positivism and interpretivism (Bryman & Cramer, 20 I 2). According  to Bhattacharjee  (20I 2), positivists consider  reality  to be steady and  argue  that it can be looked at and explained from objective standpoint devoid of essentially obstructing the phenomenon  being studied. Positivists hold the view that a singular reality exists, which is known and measurable, thus the likelihood of utilizing quantitative data analysis in measuring reality. According to Babbie (2017), positivism research philosophy is mainly quantitative in nature.

Adams (2014 ) indicates that the construct i vis ts/ interpretivists are of the view that there is no singular truth or reality without interpretation, which leads to the likelihood of having qualitative methods  to get to the presumed  number  of  realities. In addition, lnterpretivist research  philosophy is normally based on the notion which  indicates that researcher carries out particular task  in abiding to social world. Moreover, this research philosophy suggests  that the research depends on the interests of the researcher. In addition, Creswell (20 I 4) argues that interpretivist research philosophy is mainly qualitative in nature.

Pragmatics recognize that there exists different ways of carrying out a research and interpreting the world, and no single opinion, perspective or position can provide the entire picture or a phenomenon (Wilson, 2014). Pragmatists debate reality continuously, and besides renegotiate and interpret each phenomenon towards understanding the reality. Pragmatism lends itself as the best approach in solving research problems. According to Greenfield & Greener (2016 ), pragmatism is not owned by any reality and philosophical system and hence researchers have freedom to choose. Moreover, they are also “free” to choose procedures and methods that best cater for their needs as well as scientific research goals. Pragmatists do not view world as complete unity. What is in action currently is the truth; it does not rely on the view that is not exposed to reality as well as mind dualism.

This study will adopt a pragmatism paradigm. Pragmatist researchers do not commit to a given system of reality or philosophy. Pragmatist researchers usually focus on research problem ‘what ‘ and also ‘how’ (Greener, 2008). Early pragmatists did not agree with the scientific argument that one scientific method could be used to get the truth about the world through social inquiry. The approach used by the pragmatic paradigm method is the consideration of the research problem as central and using every approach available to understand this issue (Sahu, 2013 ). The methods of collecting data and analysis methods employed are the ones that are likely to give the best insight in the research problem without being loyal to any of the paradigms. The study will utilize pragmatism paradigm because it combines both qualitative as well as quantitative research techniques and hence complementing each other.

32.1  Research design

Studies that are descriptive in nature have a goal of trying to accuratel y portraying the traits of the group s, situations and persons. Cooper and Schindler (2006) definition of descriptive research refer a research design that is not experimental and one used to measure and observe a variable where there is minimal conceptual background on the variable aspects. The stud y will adopt descriptive cr oss- sectiona l survey design and correlational design.

The stud y will use descriptive cross- sectiona l survey research. A descriptive cross -sectional study is one in which the event, as well as any possibly relevant factors, are measured for a defined population at a particular time (Greener, 2008). Cross-sectional studie s are a “snap shot” of the prevalence and features of a condition in a study population at a particular time. Cross-sectiona l studie s allow the researcher to look at one independent variable and one or more dependent variables as the focus of the investigation (Kothari, 2004). The study will deploy descriptive cross-sectiona l survey research design since it enables a researcher to collect and analyze quantitative and also qualitative. Thi s research design is the best for this research as it is able to give accurate information and give clear picture of phenomenon under research.

The study will also adopt correlational research design to test the relationship between variables. A correlation study is a quantitative method of research that involves two or more variables that are quantitative and have a simil arity and not a difference in their means. The design has been in used by studie s that involve performance. For example, in Kenya, Wadongo (2010 ) deployed a cross-sectional correlational design in a research on function of managerial roles in the choice of measuring performance in five-star hotels. In addition, Njagi and Kombo (2014) deployed correlational research design to evaluate the association between strategy implementation and Kenyan commercial banks’ performance. Therefore, this study will use correlational research design because it will allow the test hypotheses and run regression analysis.

33   Target population

This research will cover 70 water projects located  in Machakos County  as units of analysis. The study  population  will be water projects beneficiaries  in Machakos County, employees  in  ministry of water within Machakos County, staff in Tanathi Water Service board and the project managers. Moreover, county representatives who include secretary, the treasurer and chairperson will represent the beneficiaries. Beneficiaries will  hence be 210 . The employees  in the Ministry  of water in Machakos County will be 54, 70 project managers while the staff working at Tanathi water service board will be 27. The total target population will therefore be 361. The study population is depicted in Table 3.I

Table 3. 1:Target population

 Categories                                                                             Target population

 Project managers County representatives

Employees  in  ministry  of  water Staff in Tanathi water services board Total






Source: Machakos county government (2021)

 3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure

Sample size and procedures of sampling that will be deployed in  conducting the  study  are described below. These su b-themes of sample size and procedures are also outlined further:

3.4.1  Sample size

The sample size is the number of observations used to calculate population estimates for a spec ific population. Sample size should be large enough to give a suitable representation of the whole population (Kothari, 2004). Creswell (2006) indicates that information gathered from the sample size should be enough and can be analyzed easily. Slo vin’s Formula will be employed to obtain sample size. Moreover, the formula takes into account the population size, making it necessary to use in this research. The formula is suita ble in th is case because it puts the study population into consideration.


1+ NE-  

n=—– 2


n = sample size

N = entire population

E = margin of error (0.05)


n=– – 2

1+ (361 * 0.05  )

=1 90

3.4.2  Sampling Technique

A sampling technique is the process of choosing a group of people from a study population  to estimate the features of the whole population (Creswe ll & Creswell, 2017 ). In addition, a samp li ng technique refers to the process of picking individuals or su bset of the population so as to make statistical inferences and estimate population characteristics. This study will use stratified random sampling to choose 190 respondents from the target group. The sample gives estimates of the population parameters and great precision that allows for a sample that is an adequate representation of the homogenous population that is relative (Greener, 2008). Control over variance  reduces  the standard  error through Stratification. Proportionate stratification will  be used to ensure that each stratum ‘ s sample size is proportional to population size in the stratum meaning that similar sampling functions are in each stratum. Sampling techniques is presented in Table 3.2

Table 3. 2: Sampling Techniques
CategoriesStudy population    Sample Size
Project managers70                              37
county representatives210                            1 11
Employees in the ministry of water54                              28
Staff in T ana -Ath i water services board27                              14
Total361                            190
  Stratified random  sampling  is  categorized  into disproportionate and  proportionate  sampling

(Creswell & Creswell, 20 I 7). The study will use proportionate stratified sampling technique since each stratum is proportionate to the entire  population  under  investigation, implying  that each stratum will have equal sampling fraction. The formulae that will be used to calculate the study ‘ s strata of the sample size will be as follows:


Nhnh  =       * n


Where by nh connotes sample size for the stratum  h, Nh denotes size of  the population  for stratum h, N denotes population size, and n denotes sample size.

3.5 Research Instrument

Primary and also secondary data will be collected by the researcher. Moreover, primary data is explained by Greener (2008) as fi rst-hand data that have not under gone processing or other form of hand li ng. Creswell (2006) agrees that qualitative data collection techn iques for example observations, foc us group discussions and interviews in addition to quantitative data collection methods such as questionnaires can be employed to collect primary data. The research primary data will be collected by means of informant interview guide s and semi struc tured questionnaires.

Semi-structured questionnaires will be handed out to the staff members and the beneficiaries of Machakos County. Structured questionnaires are preferable since they save time and resources. The y’re also simp le to analyze because the y’re ready to be utilized right away. Furthermore, open­ ended questions will be utilized to allow respondents to submit more detailed responses, allowing them to provide more information that may be relevant to the research. Questionnaires, as indicated by Kothari (2004), are ideal for gather ing data from large number of people because they provide anonymity. Moreover, this has encouraged the stud y to employ anonymity because some information is really sensitive. T he questionnaires will have 8 sections. Section A: General Informa tion; Section B: Stakeholder Participation; Section C: Risk Management; Section D: Selection of Performance Indic ators; Section E: Learning and Taking Collective Action; Section F: Organizational Resource s; Section G: County Government Water Projects ‘ Performance. Measured scale for the questionnaire will be a five-point likert scale. Where; I = s trong l y disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = Neutral, 4 = agree, and 5= strong ly agree.

Key informant interview guide will help the researcher collect information from the key informants. Such interviews are conducted on people who are aware of the happen ings of the community and are in depth and qualitative in nature. The study will include 5 officers in the National government from the Ministry of water in Machakos County as the key informants. The key informant interview guide will comprise of sections such as general information, stakeholder participation, risk management, selection of performance indicators, learning and taking collective action, organizational resources and performance of county government water projects.

3.5.1  1 Pilot Testing of Research Instruments

Pilot test will be undertaken to determine validity as well as reliability of data collection tools. This pilot test helps to eliminate any problem that may arise during the final survey. It will be used to identify and rephrase questions that have been misunderstood, ambiguous, or misread in this study. The pilot survey will also help the researcher identify any typographical issues and determine whether the questions are acceptable and relevant. Project managers, beneficiaries (county representatives), and personnel from Makueni Co unty ‘s Ministry of Water will participate in the pre-test, which will involve 19 respondents (IO percent of the sample size). Hertzog (2008) argues that sample size must be at very least IO percent of the sample size. The study will use specifically utilize a pre-test so as to allow the testing of the reliability of the research instrument.

3.5.2 2Validity of Instruments

The degree to which a test accurately measures what it claims to measure is known as validity. Face validity, content validity, as well as construct validity are the three basic categories of validity. The content validity is dependent on field specialists. The extent to which a test is subjectively said to encompass the notion it claims to measure is referred to as logical or face validity. To ensure face and content validity, the study will seek the help of project management specialists, such as the research ‘s supervisors, as they will focus on the questions developed as compared to the ind ic ators of the variables. In add itio n, to improve both types of validity, the researcher will construct research too ls in accordance with the stud y’s purpose. According to Stokes and Wall (20 I 7), construct va li dity tests how acc urate a set of questions measure the presence of a construct. This s tu dy  will use confirmatory fac tor analysis to test construct validity of stud y variables. Confirmatory factor analysis shows how we ll a measure represents a construct. The researcher will also ensure the clarity of the questions, as well as provide ins tructi o ns and guideline s to guide the respondents in the filli ng of the questionnaires.

3.5.3   Reliability of Instruments

Reliability is the uni fo rmi ty of research too ls. I t can refer to how related the results of a research too l are when it is employed repeatedly with s imi lar su bject in simi lar way and also under simil ar conditions (Stokes & Wall, 20I7).  Cronbacll’s   alpha   will   be   employed   to   establish   the questio nnaire ‘s reliability. Moreover, Cronbach ‘s alpha measures internal consistency that reveals how closely group of questions in a questionnaire are related. Higher alpha coefficient values are required in assessing the concepts of interest since consistency is necessary in measuring the se items. The researcher will employ SPSS version 22 to ana l yze data from pre-test to measure the internal consistency of each of the constructs. The C ronbach ‘s alpha coefficient, whic h has a range of 0-1 , will be used to assess data reliability. The inte rnal reliability of the measurement device will be tested by e mplo ying Cronbach alpha. The sca le is more dependable if it ha s a higher score. Adrian (2003) stated that a reliability score of 0.7 is adeq uate.

3.6 Data Collection Procedure

The first step in the data collection process will be the application of research permit from NACOSTI. The second step will be to develop a transmittal le tter, whic h will be attached to the questionnaires. Thereafter, the researcher will book appointments with the staffs in the ministry of water in, Machakos County and those in the water service board as well as the beneficiaries and come up with the best time to fill the research questionnaires. A DOPU method will be used in data collection process. Follow ups will be made through phone calls to ensure a high response rate. The data collection process is estimated that it will take at least one month. To interview the key informants, the researcher will have to book appointments with officers in the Ministry of Water in the National government in Machakos County. On the appointed date, the researcher will conduct a face to face interview with the key informants.

3 .7 Data Analysis Techniques

 3 .7 .1 Descriptive Statistics

Qualitative data will be obtained from open ended questions as well as key informant interviews. Additionally, thematic analysis will be employed for the analysis of qualitative data and findings will be given in form of a narrative. Moreover, thematic analysis is one of the most prevalent types of analysis in qualitative research. It emphasizes the need of highlighting, analyzing and recording data trends (Greener, 2008). Themes are patterns in a data collection that are essential for defining the phenomenon under study and are tied to specific research objectives. Themes are the categories of analysis in a research.

With assistance of SPSS version 22, this study will use descriptive statistics to analyze quantitative data. Quantitative data will compose of frequency distribution percentages, mean and also standard deviation. To describe the resp ondent ‘ s responses in relation to the indicators of independent, dependent, as well as moderating factor, general information gotten of the participants will then be analyzed by employing descriptive statistics (Bhattacharjee, 2012).

3 .7 .2 Inferential statistics

Inferential data analysis will be done by the use of multiple regression analysis (stepwise method), Pearson correlation coefficient, as well as regression analysis (enter method). According to Greener (2008), parametric measures are an example of statistical methods which believe in distribution of variables normally. Parametric statistics for example regression analysis and Pearson correlation are used purposely because of measuring the normal distribution of variables. Standardized and unstandardized coefficients however give the regression analysis equation. P­ values will be used in hypothesis testing since it assists in making decisions in regard to the null hypothesis and further gives an insight on the strength of the decision. The researcher will adopt a 95 percent confidence interval and hence significance level in this study will be 0.05. This simply means that for a predictor variable or explanatory variable influence the dependent variable, p­ value must not be above 0.05.

Relationship between variables will further be tested using univariate and multivariate regression models. The univariate mode which is simple linear regression model usually has a single predictor as well as one result while multivariate model has many predictors and one result. The regression analysis will also use other tests including F-test, Student t-Test and adjusted R2.

The below are regression models which are employed to test 6 hypotheses: Regression model for study objective one;

H01: There is no significant association between stakeholder participation and performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County, Kenya.

f3o + /31X1 + E


Y       = county gove rnments’ water projects Performance

Bo =Constant

P1       =Coeff icie nts of determination

X1      = Stakeholder Participation a =E rror term

Study objective two regression model;

Ho2: There is no significant association between risk management and performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County, Kenya.



Y      =Perfo rmance of county gove rnments’ water projects

Bo = Constant

B2     =Coefficie nts of determination

X2    = Risk Management a  = Error term

Regression model for objective three;

Ho3: There is no significant relationship between key performance indicators and county gove rnments’ water projects performance in Machakos County, Kenya.

Y= /Jo + /33X3 + E


Y= county gove rnments’ water projects performance

Bo =Constant

B3      =Coeff icie nts of determination

X3      = Selection of Performance Indicators a      = Error term

Regression model for study objective four;

H04: There is no significant relationship between continuous learning and improvement and performance of county gove rnments’ water projects in Machakos County, Kenya.

yf3o + /34½4 + E


Y = Perfo rmance of county governments ‘ water projects

Bo = Constant

B4 = Coeff icie nts of determination

X4 = Learning and Taking Collective Action a = Error term

Regression model for objective five;

Hos: There is no significant relationship between  organizational  resources  and  county gove rnments’ water projec ts’ performance in Machakos County, Kenya.

f3o f3sXs E


Y =Perfo rmance of county governments ‘ water projects

Bo = Constant

B5 = Coeff icie nts of determination

X5 = Organizational Resources     = Error term

Moderator refers to a variable which influences the strength as well as direction of the association between the independent and dependent variables. Variable can increase or reduce the association direction between the variables or change direction between variables relationship from positive to negative. Moreover, a moderator that is encouraged is one which after its interaction with the predictor or independent variable leads to significant outcome on dependent variable. Moreover, the research employed multiple regressions analysis to evaluate the moderating effect of Organizational resources (z) on association between dependent and independent variable.

H06: Organizational resources has insignificant moderating impact on performance between RBM and performance of county water projects situated in Machakos County, Kenya.

The statistical overall model deployed for analysis was as shown below:


Where: –

= Performance of county government water projects

/30      = the constant

p;         =coefficie nt of Xi for i=l ,2,3,4

X1       = Stakeholder Participation

X2      = Risk Management

X3      = Selection of Performance Indicators

X4      = Leaming and Taking Collective Action

Z         = hypothesized moderator (Organizational resources)


f3z     = coefficient of Xi *Z interaction term between Organizatio nal resources and each independent variables for i =l , 2,3,4

E        = error term

3.8 Ethical Considerations

Ethics are norms governing the conduct of people that significantl y affec t the human  welfare (Cooper & Schindler, 2006). The researcher considers ethical issues in the stud y to maintain the research credibility. All idea s borrowed from other sources will be referenced to do away with plagiarism. Additionally, the filling of questionnaires by the respondents will be voluntary and non -one will be forced to be part of the stud y. Before administration of the questionnaire, the researcher will seek the consent of the respondents by asking them whethe r the y want to participate in the stud y or not. Only willing respondents will be given the questionnaires.

The names of the respondents who fill the questionnaires will not  be  indicated on  the questionnaires and  those  participants  who are known by the researcher  will not be revealed  but kept confidential. In case a response is restricted  to one  person,  the information  will be hand le d and maintained  in confidentiality. Moreover, the intenti ons  of the research  will further be revealed to the respondents and an assurance given to them that the research will be employed for education purposes. There will be stric t ano nymi ty and the research info rmation will only be given or seen by those auth or ized to see or use it.

 Table 3. 3: Operationalization of the variables

ObjectivesVariablesIndicatorsMeasuring ScaleResearch ApproachData Analysis TechniquesTool of Analysis
To determine how stake holder participation impacts   the performance of       county governme nts ‘ water projectsStakeholder Participation•     Stakeholder sens iti zation •     Stake holder cons ul tation •       Incorporation  of stake ho lder input s In    de s ign   and plan n i ng •     Incorporation  of stake holder input s in imple menta tion and monitoring •     Involvement  of stakeho lder    In dec is io n makin g•   Ordinal •   Ratio•     Quantitative •     QuaUtative•   Descr i ptive statist ic s •   Inferential s ta tis tics•      Univariate regress io n analysis •      Multiple                  regression analysis •      Person                 corre lation analys is •      Mean  and           Standard Deviatio n •      Thematic       content analysis
To determine the degree to which             risks management in flue nces co un ty governments ‘ water projects performanceRM•     Risk Identification •     Risk mitigation •     Risk analysis •        Risk revie w •     Risk Monitorin g•    Ordinal •   Ratio•     Quantitative •     Quali tative•   Descriptive statistics •   Inferential statistics•     Univariate regress io n analysis •     Multiple                 regression analysis •     Person                corre latio n analys is •     Mean and Standard Deviation
      •    Thematic content anal vs is
To dete rmine how selecti on of    KPi s, influence the performance of       county governments’ water projects.Selection of KPl s•     Selection of KPis •     Deve lopme nt of tool s •       Data collection •     Ana l ysis of KPis •     Report i ng on KPi s•   Ordinal •   Ratio•     Quantitative •     Qualitative•   Descri ptive statistics •   Inferential statistics•     Univariate regress ion analy sis •     Multiple                 regression analysis •     Person                correlation analy s is •     Mean and Standard Deviation •    Them atic content analysis
To evaluate the degree to which le anin g and tak in g collective action influe nce s the performance of count y governments’ water pro jec ts.Continuou s Learning and improvemen t•       Review           of performance •     Utilization       of report s •     Mana ge ment deci s ion making •     Communication and d iss e minati on •     Improvement  of projects•   Ordinal •   Ratio•        Quantitative •     Quali tative•   Descriptive statistic s •   Inferential statistic s•        Uni variate regression analy sis •     Multiple                 regress ion analy sis •     Person                correlation analy s is •     Mean and Standard Deviation •    Thematic                    content analy sis
To   establish how organi zationa I       resource s moderates the relationship between results basedOrganizatio nal Resources•     Financial Resource •     Human Resource •     Physic a l assets •     Technologic al resource s •     Information resources•    Ordinal •    Ratio•     Quantitative •        Qualitative•   Descriptive statistics •   Inferential statistic s•     Uni variate regression analys is •     Multiple                 regress ion analy sis •     Person correlation analy s is •     Mean and   Standard Deviation
management and         the performance of       county governments ‘ water pro jec ts .     •    Thematic                    content analysis
 Performance of     county gover nme nt p rojects•     Percentage of house hold ‘ s access to water •     Ratio of access of households to sanitation facility •       The cost of provid i ng water delivery servic es to the community •     Percentage of water supply systems that have been built •     Quality of water•    Ordinal •    Ratio•     Quantitative •     Qualitativeo Descriptive statistics •   Inferential statistics•     Univariate regressio n analysis •     Multiple                  regress ion analysis •     Person                 correlation analysis •     Mean   and           Standard Deviation •     Thematic                      content analysis